The Journal of Spinal Surgery

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2016 | July-September | Volume 3 | Issue 3

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EDITORIAL

Adjacent Corticocancellous Bone Graft in Anterior Cervical Interbody Fusion: A Technical Note

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:75 - 78]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10039-1095  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Parthiban JKBC. Adjacent Corticocancellous Bone Graft in Anterior Cervical Interbody Fusion: A Technical Note. J Spinal Surg 2016;3(3):75-78.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anantha Kishan, Anantha Gabbita, DN Varadaraju, Shivalingegouda R Patil

Efficacy of Triamcinolone Acetonide vs Bupivacaine Local Infiltration for Early Postoperative Pain Control after Lumbar Disectomy: A Prospective Randomized Double-blind Study

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:79 - 82]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10039-1096  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

The management of pain after lumbar discectomy is a controversial subject. Effective postoperative analgesia is associated with lower rate of morbidity and results in shorter hospitalization, reducing overall cost. Wound infiltration widely used for the purpose is 0.25 or 0.5% bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetonide. We felt the need for a study to compare both in terms of their efficacy in our setup.

Materials and methods

This is a prospective randomized, double-blind study comprising 60 patients of single-level prolapsed intervertebral disk, admitted in the Department of Neurosurgery at Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Bengaluru.

Sample size

A total of 60 cases were taken and divided into two groups. Thirty cases in group A were infiltrated by a mixture of 50 mg of triamcinolone in 5 mL of normal saline. Thirty cases in group B were infiltrated by a mixture of 5 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine and 5 mL of normal saline.

Results

The time interval between surgery and first dose of opiate analgesia was significantly higher in the bupivacaine group (5 h 31 min ± 1 h 14 min) compared with the triamcinolone group (3 h 20 min ± 40 min). The visual analog pain scale (VAS) scores at 2nd hour (group A 2.034 ± 0.84 vs group B 0.931 ± 0.64) and 4th hour (group A 4.104 ± 0.97 vs group B 2.314 ± 1.14) were also found to be significantly lower in the bupivacaine group compared with the triamcinolone group. However, there was no significant difference in the amount of total opiate analgesic consumption in 24 hours (258 vs 248 mg).

Conclusion

In the present study, the data suggest that intraoperative local infiltration of bupivacaine is safe and provides significant analgesia in the early postoperative period when compared with triamcinolone acetonide.

Clinical significance

Based on the results of this study, we made departmental protocol to infiltrate all operative lumbar cases with bupivacaine.

How to cite this article

Varadaraju DN, Patil SR, Kishan A, Gabbita A. Efficacy of Triamcinolone Acetonide vs Bupivacaine Local Infiltration for Early Postoperative Pain Control after Lumbar Disectomy: A Prospective Randomized Double-blind Study. J Spinal Surg 2016;3(3):79-82.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Eva M Tiefenauer, Beate Poblete, Florian Marti, Christoph J Konrad, Karl F Kothbauer

Major Surgeries are More Painful: Perioperative Pain Management and the Role of Preexisting Chronic Pain in Two Types of Spine Surgery

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:83 - 89]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10039-1097  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To answer the question whether the postoperative pain intensity and individual satisfaction correlate with the extent of surgery in two distinct types of spinal surgery and whether the perioperative pain management differs between the two groups in the context of chronic preoperative pain.

Materials and methods

The PAIN OUT assessment tool was used for this retrospective comparative study. One hundred and eighty five nonconsecutive patients were grouped into two surgical groups: Group A (= “minor” operations) were patients undergoing either kyphoplasty, microsurgical fenestration for disk hernia removal, or decompression of spinal stenosis. Group B (= “major” operations) were patients who underwent spinal instrumentation of at least one lumbar segmental level in addition to microsurgical decompression.

Results

In group A (n = 146) the amount of fentanyl administered intraoperatively per hour was higher. Patients in group B (n = 39) underwent longer operation times and received more often remifentanil. They also indicated higher postoperative pain scores and longer pain duration, desired more often additional pain medication, and were less satisfied with analgesic treatment. There was no significant difference in preoperative chronic pain between groups A and B.

Conclusion

More invasive spinal surgeries cause significantly more pain and less patient satisfaction, which we think is largely due to an insufficient perioperative pain management. Contrary to prior reports, the presence of chronic preoperative pain did not predict higher pain perception in the two groups.

Clinical significance

Chronic low back pain is a high prevalent problem with significant clinical and socioeconomic consequences. Current pain management concepts – especially in a perioperative setting – are still unsatisfactory.

How to cite this article

Tiefenauer EM, Poblete B, Marti F, Konrad CJ, Kothbauer KF. Major Surgeries are More Painful: Perioperative Pain Management and the Role of Preexisting Chronic Pain in Two Types of Spine Surgery. J Spinal Surg 2016;3(3):83-89.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anantha Kishan, Anantha Gabbita, DN Varadaraju, Mohamed M Usman, Shivalinge G Patil, Amrut V Hosmath

Pedicle Screw Placement in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine by the C-arm Guided Navigation and the Free Hand Method: A Technical and Outcome Analysis

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:90 - 95]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10039-1098  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

The use of pedicle screws in stabilizing all three columns of the spine is a well-known but technically demanding procedure. Various assisted techniques like intraoperative fluoroscopy and stereotaxy-guided techniques have marginally increased placement accuracy along with increased radiation exposure to the surgeon and the patient, with an increased operative time.

Over the last two decades, a detailed understanding of the anatomy of the thoracolumbar pedicles has led to the emergence of the “free-hand” technique.

Objectives

To analyze the pedicle screw placement in thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spine over a 3-year period in terms of the intraoperative and immediate postoperative procedural results using navigation-guided and free hand techniques.

Materials and methods

A retrospective study was done over a period of 3 years from November 2012 to December 2015 in a tertiary care center by a single surgeon, involving 118 cases that were done using the C-arm navigation and the free hand technique.

Results

The study involved a total of 118 patients and 546 screws over a period of 3 years. The indications consisted of degenerative diseases (72%), infection (12.7%), trauma (12.7%), and malignancy (2.54%). The initial 77 cases were done by image guidance under C arm navigation and the later 41 cases with free hand techniques. Among these, there were eight breaches noted (6.72%), five (6.49%) in the image-guided technique vs three (7.3%) in the freehand technique. The direction of breach was lateral in one case (12.5%) and medial in seven cases (87.5%). Three patients (37.5%) with suboptimal screw placement underwent revision surgery. Four patients (3.36%) in the present study had postoperative neurological deficit in the form of foot drop and preoperative durotomies noted in nine patients (7.62%). Postoperative surgical site infections were noted in four cases (3.38%).

Conclusion

Free hand pedicle screw placement based on external anatomy alone can be performed with acceptable safety and accuracy in experienced hands and allows avoidance of radiation exposure encountered in fluoroscopic techniques.

How to cite this article

Gabbita A, Usman MM, Kishan A, Varadaraju DN, Patil SG, Hosmath AV. Pedicle Screw Placement in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine by the C-arm Guided Navigation and the Free Hand Method: A Technical and Outcome Analysis. J Spinal Surg 2016;3(3):90-95.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Nithin Asadhi, Narayan Gudi, Anil K Sakalecha, Arun Shanthappa, Hariprasad Seenappa

Computerized Tomographic Morphometric Analysis of Subaxial Cervical Spine Pedicles in a South Indian Population for guiding Pedicular Mass Fixation

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:96 - 102]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10039-1099  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Our hospital Sri RL Jalappa Hospital is located on the national highway in South India. We receive many patients with history of trauma following road traffic accidents and fall from height. Most of the patients have sustained injuries to head and spine including cervical spine. The general population also presents with neck pain of various etiologies (e.g., cervical myelopathy).

Aim

To assess the morphometry of the subaxial cervical spine pedicles through computerized tomography and to determine the frequency of neurovascular injuries in patients who undergo pedicular mass fixation in cervical spine.

Materials and methods

This study was a hospital-based prospective intervention study centered at RL Jalappa Hospital and Research Centre attached to Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar, from November 2013 to July 2015 in which data of 200 patients who underwent computerized tomographic scans of the cervical spine and neck for various pathologies were collected and assessed.

Results

The mean values of pedicle lengths and widths were found to be progressively increasing for both males and females from C3 to C6 vertebrae level and then slightly decreasing at C7 level. Also, it can be seen that the mean values for females are smaller than those for males, for both left and right side. We found that transverse and sagittal plane angulations were significantly dependent on spinal level. Transverse angulation was approximately 45° at C3 through C5 and decreased caudally to approximately 33° at C7 for both sexes.

Conclusion

Through this study we found that there is less significance in the demographic profile. There was a progressive increase in the lengths, widths, and height of the pedicles from C3 to C7 vertebra pedicle transverse angle. Though the literature describes the use of 3.5 mm cervical pedicular screws, Indian population will require a smaller size.

How to cite this article

Asadhi N, Gudi N, Sakalecha AK, Shanthappa A, Seenappa H. Computerized Tomographic Morphometric Analysis of Subaxial Cervical Spine Pedicles in a South Indian Population for guiding Pedicular Mass Fixation. J Spinal Surg 2016;3(3):96-102.

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CASE REPORT

Jeyaselva Senthilkumar TP, Mohan Sampathkumar, C Sekar, Mohammad Abith Ali, Naresh, Premchand

An Interesting Case of Spinal Primary Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: Rarest of the Rare

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:103 - 107]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10039-1100  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Senthilkumar TPJ, Sampathkumar M, Sekar C, Ali MA, Naresh, Premchand. An Interesting Case of Spinal Primary Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: Rarest of the Rare. J Spinal Surg 2016;3(3):103-107.

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CASE REPORT

Nilesh Jain

A Rare Case of Spinal Schwannomatosis presenting as Conus-cauda Syndrome

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:108 - 111]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10039-1101  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Narayan S, Jain N, Patil H. A Rare Case of Spinal Schwannomatosis presenting as Conus-cauda Syndrome. J Spinal Surg 2016;3(3):108-111.

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CASE REPORT

Shivender Sobti, Paul S John, Sarvpreet S Grewal

Giant Cell Tumor of Dorsal Spine

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:112 - 113]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10039-1102  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Sobti S, John PS, Kumar A, Grewal SS. Giant Cell Tumor of Dorsal Spine. J Spinal Surg 2016;3(3):112-113.

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CASE REPORT

BV Sandeep, Kaushik Roy, Suniti K Saha, Manpreet S Banga

Intramedullary Spinal Ganglioglioma involving the Conus with Unusual Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:114 - 116]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10039-1103  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Sandeep BV, Roy K, Saha SK, Banga MS. Intramedullary Spinal Ganglioglioma involving the Conus with Unusual Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features. J Spinal Surg 2016;3(3):114-116.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Satishchandra Gore

Lumbar Stenosis: Oblique Coronal Images in MRI for assessment of Ligamentum Flavum

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:117 - 117]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10039-1104  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Gore S. Lumbar Stenosis: Oblique Coronal Images in MRI for assessment of Ligamentum Flavum. J Spinal Surg 2016;3(3):117.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Raghunath Avanali

Importance of Hyaline Material in Herniated Lumbar Disk Pathology: Predicting the Presence of Hyaline from Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and its Clinical Significance

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:118 - 118]

   DOI: 10.5005/joss-3-3-118  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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