Editorial Policies and Publication Ethics

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Duties and responsibilities in publishing

2.1 Duties and Responsibilities of the Publisher

2.2 Duties and Responsibilities of Editors

2.3 Duties and Responsibilities of Authors

2.4 Duties and Responsibilities of Reviewers

2.5 Duties and Responsibilities of Sponsors

3.0 Copyright Issues

4.0 Handling publication malpractice or research misconduct

5.0 Editorial Policies

6.0 Advertisement Policy

7.0 Amendments and revision of the policies

8.0 References




The concept of scholarly publication started in 1665 and kept getting refined. The first peer reviewed journal was published in 1731 and today we are in the era of digital management of scholarly journal publications. The most vital component in the era of the scholarly communication system is that it acts as a building block in the development of a coherent and respective network of knowledge. Hence, it is very crucial to lay down standards of expected ethical behaviour by all parties involved in the act of publishing.


This policy serves the purpose of ensuring the best publishing practices for everyone involved in the scholarly publishing process.1.1 This policy specifically refers to scholarly journals published by Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. The publisher, journal editors and board members, authors and reviewers involved in the scholarly publishing process are responsible for promoting integrity in scientific publishing. It is necessary to agree upon the standards of ethical behaviour for all stakeholders involved in the journal publication.


1.2 This policy includes roles and responsibilities (terms of references) of all stakeholders on publication ethics, animal use and research permit, disclosure, and conflict of interest, reporting research funding, peer-reviewing process, editorial independence, authorship, publication misconducts/fraud/plagiarism, article retraction, clarification, or correction.


1.3 This policy also serves as a provision for action if in cases when publication ethical issues or misconduct are encountered and need to be addressed.


1.4 The publication ethics and malpractice statements are made with reference from the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).




2.1 Duties and Responsibilities of the Publisher


2.1.1 The Publisher works with Journal Editorial boards of all its journals to create relevant journal policy and guidelines. It also promotes a better scholarly communication system for journal management. It assists the publication and indexing needs of all journal articles published in various journals under its portfolio.


2.1.2 The Publisher ensures that journal editors, authors, reviewers, and other stakeholders adopt best publishing policies and practices, and the transparency is retained.


2.1.3 The Publisher will review these journal policies regularly and update the policies whenever necessary. The Publisher assigns Chief Editors and panels to advise on publication misconducts, issues related to animal and human ethics, journal policy and guidelines, etc. periodically or as and when needed. If allegations of misconducts are brought to the attention by journal editors, authors, reviewers, sponsors, readers or users, the Publisher is also responsible for the investigation of any suspected publication misconducts and provides solution for these cases (Misconduct policy).


2.1.4 The Publisher will also work and collaborate with Chief Editors and panels to handle any potential breaches cases of intellectual property, laws and issues related to these.


2.2 Duties and Responsibilities of Editors


2.2.1 Chief responsibilities


  1. The Chief Editors and/or Editors are responsible for the publication decisions of all manuscripts submitted to their respective journal. These decisions to accept or reject a paper will be based solely on the validity, originality, and novelty of research works, as well as the relevance of the paper to the scope of the journal. Also, Editors should ensure all published materials are securely archived and the Publisher will provide the relevant digital support as needed.
  2. The Chief Editors and/or Editors shall be responsible to evaluate manuscripts fairly and solely on their intellectual merit and to ensure confidentiality of manuscripts and has the responsibility to decide when and which articles are to be published.


2.2.2 Editors with the Publisher


  1. Editors should work and collaborate with the Publisher to constantly improve their journals, revise the journal policies whenever required, and assure the quality of the materials published in their journals. Editors shall solely and independently decide whether to accept or reject a manuscript based on its quality and relevance to the scope of the journal.
  2. The Chief Editors, Editors, and members of the editorial board should establish mechanisms to deal with any disagreements, dispute, or conflict between themselves and the Publisher. Chief Editors should assist and support the Publisher to ensure proper investigation of any suspected misconducts for both published and unpublished papers, including, considering the responses from those suspected of misconduct to ensure a fair and unbiased investigation. Chief Editors also work and collaborate with the Publisher to handle potential breaches of intellectual property, laws, and related issues.


2.2.3 Editors with Authors


  1. Editors should strive to fulfil the needs of authors and consider their views for journal process and management improvement.
  2. Editors should check for any research and publication misconducts by the authors. Editors should also ensure all manuscripts submitted and accepted are checked for plagiarized and fabricated contents (including plagiarized texts and inappropriately altered images). The Publisher uses an authentic plagiarism-detection software to check for potential plagiarism or duplication of work in all manuscripts.
  3. Editors shall check and verify that the authors acknowledge any research funding/grants and written informed consent for publication involving human data, research permits, animal, and human ethic committee agreement forms, etc., for their submitted articles (if applicable).
  4. Editors should ensure publishing guidelines and author instructions are available to the authors. Editors should send the peer reviewer(s) reports to the authors in their entirety unless these reports contain offensive or discourteous statements. They should also allow authors to respond to the reviewers' comments.


2.2.4 Editors with Reviewers


  1. Editors will ensure all published articles have been reviewed in timely manner and is done by unbiased and qualified or appropriate reviewers with relevant expertise and free from disqualifying competing interests. Editors should maintain a database of suitable reviewers and remove reviewers who consistently submit poor quality reviewer reports.
  2. Editors may guide reviewers on the preparation of reviewer report. They should also require that the reviewers handle the manuscripts as confidential documents and without disclosure to the third party. Editors should also inform the reviewers of the need to declare any potential conflict of interests (if applicable). They should also ensure freedom of expression by the reviewers, especially on issues related to publication ethics and misconducts, manuscript originality and validity, etc.
  3. Reviewers have the liabilities to disclose any competing interest before agreeing to review a submission and may refuse to review any submission due to a conflict of interest or inadequate knowledge.
  4. Reviewers are also obliged to review all submissions objectively, fairly and professionally, reveal any ethical misconduct encountered while reviewing to the Chief Editor for further action and should ensure the originality of a submission and be alert to any plagiarism and redundant publication.
  5. Reviewers must not discuss the content of the submission without permission and adhere to the time allocated for the review process. They can make an application request for an extension to review the submission, and this depends on the discretion of the Chief Editor or Editor(s) to approve or not.


2.2.5 Editors with Editorial Board Members


  1. Chief Editors should identify qualified editorial board members who can actively contribute to high standard journal processing and management. Comprehensive and clear guidelines with precise terms of references should be provided to the editorial board members about their expected roles and duties. Chief Editors and/or Editors should consult the editorial board members about the improvement of the journal processing and managements, challenges, and future directions.
  2. Chief Editors and/or Editors should ensure adequate training and technologies related to the editorial processing are provided to relevant members of the editorial board (including themselves).
  3. The Board Members shall actively contribute to the development and the greater good of the journal and act as ambassadors for the journal. They have to continuously support and promote the journal and also review any work assigned to them.


2.2.6 Disclosure and Conflicts of Interests


  1. The Chief Editors and/or Editors are not allowed to disclose any information in the manuscript that is being reviewed to others or use the information from research data described in the manuscript for personal benefits.
  2. The Chief Editors and/or Editors should avoid any business needs and commercial considerations that may compromise the intellectual and ethical standards of the article publication of their journal. A conflict of interest may exist when the Chief Editors and/or Editors has a financial or personal interest that could affect his/her professional judgement on the manuscript. In this event, the Chief Editors and/or Editors hereby should disclose the conflict of interest and shall take reasonable steps to secure and withhold themselves from making any editorial decision for those manuscripts.
  3. The Chief Editors and/or Editors may submit manuscripts to their journal for publication consideration. However, they should declare this in their manuscripts. They cannot be involved in the reviewing process and should avoid making editorial decisions related to their manuscript.


2.2.7 Timeliness of the Publication Process


The Chief Editors and/or Editors must monitor the turnaround time for each publishing step from manuscript receipt to publication or rejection. They need to ensure the timeliness of publication in each issue. They must track reviewers' and editors' performance, the backlog of accepted manuscripts, and provide prompt responses and decisions for manuscripts.


2.2.8 Errata, Retractions and Clarifications


The Publisher follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendation to address the errata, retractions and clarifications

  1. Editors should publish errata or corrections, clarifications, or retractions of any materials when needed and as quickly as possible if competing interests are detected after publication.
  2. A direct link between the original article and the errata or the corrected articles must be provided for all online journals.


2.3 Duties and Responsibilities of Authors


2.3.1 Authorship


The publisher considers an author as the one who has significantly or substantially contributed to the experimentation and interpretation of the data, in addition to writing the manuscript for publication. All those who have made substantial contributions should be listed as co-authors. All co-authors who have contributed appropriate portions of the content must agree to the manuscript submission. Any requests for addition or removal of the author(s) before/after publication must seek approval of the Chief Editors/Editors. The corresponding authors must ensure that all the authors have agreed and approved the manuscript submission to the journal.



  1. Authors should state their results clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation. The methods used in the work should be clearly and unambiguously described so that the findings can be repeated and confirmed by other researchers.
  2. Authors are responsible to inform the Chief Editor or the publisher for any inaccuracy of data in their published work so that correction or retraction of article can be done.
  3. Authors are responsible to ensure only new and original work is submitted.
  4. Authors must not reproduce work that has been previously published in other journals and discourage multiple submissions that are being reviewed or considered by other journals simultaneously.
  5. Authors are allowed to publish their work elsewhere after receiving a formal rejection from the journal or if their request to withdraw their work is officially accepted by the journal.
  6. Authors should make significant contributions and be held accountable for any shortcoming in their work.


2.3.3 Research Misconduct


  1. Copying, stealing, fabricating, or manipulating intellectual properties of another person constitute acts of plagiarism whereas fabrication and falsification are considered fraud or research misconduct. It is incumbent on all authors to refrain from acts of plagiarism, fabrication, or falsification associated with the submitted manuscript (see Section 4.0 for details).
  2. Any plagiarism, fraud or research misconduct will be reported by Journal Chief Editors to the Publisher. Authors, reviewers or sponsors can also report an allegation of publication malpractices directly to the Publisher. An investigation into any plagiarism, fraud or research misconduct, or publication malpractices is under the purview of the Publisher, the Chief Editors and panels. (see Section 4.0 for details).


2.3.4 Image Manipulation


  1. Manipulation of images may lead to manipulation of results and compromise the image integrity. It is prohibited to enhance, obscure, move, remove, or introduce a specific feature within an image. Exception and acceptable manipulation include manipulating images for improved clarity such as adjustments of brightness, contrast or colour balance as long as they do not obscure or eliminate information present in the original material. An act of wrongdoing in manipulating images which could be seen or detected as scientific ethical abuse will not be accepted and will be action will be taken accordingly.
  2. Any submitted digital images with suspected manipulations or has been manipulated, this matter will be referred to the Chief Editors/Editors. Primary data may be requested from the authors concerned for comparison with the submitted digital images. Any images/data proven to have been manipulated may be considered as research misconduct. An investigation will be carried out by the Publisher and may result in rejection of the manuscript by the journals (see Section 4.0 for details).


2.3.5 Multiple, Redundant or Concurrent Publications


  1. In the case of authors using published figures, data and/or copyrighted materials in the submitted manuscript, it is the responsibility of authors and corresponding authors to:
    1. acknowledge the sources in the manuscript.
    2. obtain permission from the original publisher; and
    3. cite the original article and acknowledge the copyright holder in the figure/table caption.
  2. Upon submission of the manuscript, the author(s) must confirm and agree that no similar work has been or will be submitted or published elsewhere in any language (exception - preprint servers).
  3. The author is not permitted to submit or publish concurrently the same essential research manuscript in more than one journal of primary publication. This is considered as unethical behaviour.
  4. Notwithstanding, the author is allowed to submit or publish a similar manuscript in form of abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis.


2.3.6 Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest


  1. Transparency is vital in scientific research and publication. A conflict of interest may exist when an author, financial or grant supporter, stock owner, patent-licensing owner, editor, or the reviewer has a financial or personal interest that could affect his/her professional judgement or influence his/her actions.
  2. Failure of the author(s) to declare any financial or personal conflicts may undermine the credibility of the journal. Thus, all authors are expected to disclose any conflict of interest during the submission of their manuscripts.


2.3.7 Availability of Materials and Data Access


  1. Upon acceptance of publication, all authors must agree that sample materials and data described in the article are to be made available to the scientific community for non-commercial purposes. Such sample materials and data may include but are not limited to, biological samples, sequence data, images, statistical data, etc.
  2. Manuscripts must contain sufficient details, and necessary materials or information must be made available upon request to enable the research work that can be repeated by other researchers. However, the legitimate interests of the authors will be protected with appropriate agreements to restrict the field of use of sample materials or data that have been made available.


2.3.8 Biosecurity, Animal Use and Research Permit


  1. The Publisher is obligated to discourage any use of infectious agents or their derivatives that could potentially be used as biological weapons, and contrary to the welfare of mankind. Members of the Journal Editorial Board will evaluate any manuscript that may have raised such issues.
  2. Any experiment or research conducted must comply with all current laws of the country or countries involved. Authors describing experimental studies involving animals/human in their manuscripts must obtain approval from their respective Institutional Animal/Human Ethics Committee before manuscript submission and this document must be made available upon request. Misconduct in animal use will result in revocation of the submitted manuscript.
  3. Authors describing research which involves biological resources or collection of biological samples in their manuscripts must obtain research permits from their respective local or state government department (such as Forest Department, Fishery Department, etc.). Permit number or approval reference number (if any) must be listed in the acknowledgement section of the manuscript.
  4. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent obtained for implementation with human subjects and the privacy right of human subjects must always be observed.


2.3.9 Reporting Guidelines


The authors must follow the reporting guidelines as per the ICMJE instructions:


For Randomized Controlled Trials - CONSORT flowchart along with checklist to be submitted

For Observational Studies - STROBE

For Systematic Reviews & Meta-analyses - PRISMA flowchart to be submitted

For Diagnostic Accuracy Studies - STARD

For Systematic reviews and meta-analyses - QUOROM

For Case Reports - CARE


Other good sources for reporting guidelines are



NLM's Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives


2.3.10 Article-processing charges (APC)


APC isn't applicable for all journals under the Publisher portfolio. There are few journals where APC is applicable. This information is available on the journal webpage.


2.3.11 Reviewer suggestions


The journals published by the Publisher practice majorly double-blind peer-review process, however a few journals may have Triple blinding rule or even single blinding rules. Authors are welcome to suggest suitable reviewers to review their submitted manuscript. Authors may also request to exclude individuals from reviewing their manuscript due to possible conflict of interest. However, the decision on the reviewers is made by the journal editors.


2.3.12 Confidential process


All the communication between the authors and the journal must be treated as confidential, including email communication, reviewers' reports, etc. Authors are restricted from posting any confidential materials on any website or published materials, without prior permission from the journal, regardless of the submission is published or rejected.


2.4 Duties and Responsibilities of Reviewers


2.4.1 Peer Review Ethics


  1. The journals practise majorly a double-blind peer-review process however, a few journals may have Triple blinding rule or even single blinding rules. Chief Editor/Editors shall have the right to and follow the best practice in selecting and appointing potential reviewers (at least two, but usually three or more) who are expected to have related expertise or have the suitable expertise on the relevant field, willing to give full cooperation and commitment and time for reviewing an assigned manuscript to ensure high standards of peer-reviewing. The comments given by the reviewers will be used to assist the Chief Editor/Editors in deciding on the publication and to guide the authors in improving the overall quality of their manuscripts.
  2. Reviewers should review all submissions objectively, fairly, and professionally. When proposing acceptance of a manuscript, the reviewer must ensure that the manuscript meets these criteria: original and significance, research work is of importance to research community in the related field, interesting to scientists in other related fields, and provide evidence for its conclusions. Reviewers should also ensure that the methods are adequately explained, all relevant works are cited properly.
  3. Reviewers should avoid giving comments or statements that are offensive, libellous or discourteous. Reviewers are to abide by the guidelines set by the journals for the scope, content and quality of review and comply with the journal publication policy by the Publisher.
  4. Reviewers should follow the deadline given to review an assigned manuscript. Typically, a manuscript should be reviewed by the reviewer within two weeks. Any extension of reviewing duration must be approved by the Editors concerned. Reviewers may be requested by Editors to review or to give further advice on a revised manuscript.
  5. Reviewers should maintain the confidentiality of the peer-review process. All the communication between the reviewers and the journal editors, as well as any manuscript received by the reviewer, must be treated confidentially, and must not at any stage be disclosed or discussed with anyone.


2.4.2 Disclosure and Conflict of Interest


  1. A conflict of interest may exist when a reviewer has a financial or personal interest that could affect his/her professional judgement on the manuscript. Potential reviewers who conduct their research works which are conflicting or competing with the authors will not be appointed.
  2. A potential reviewer must disclose any potential financial or personal conflict (if any) to the Editors before agreeing to review a manuscript. Editors will decide whether to cease the use of reviewers who have such potential conflict of interest.
  3. A reviewer may opt to refuse to review any submission due to a conflict of interest or inadequate knowledge.


2.5 Duties and Responsibilities of Sponsors


2.5.1 Sponsoring organizations or sponsors (including but not limited to academic or research organizations, medical association, pharmaceutical, biotechnology or manufacturing companies, etc.) may be involved in the publication of journal articles. Authors' designations on manuscripts are bound to the authorship requirements in this policy. A sponsor representative may involve in the research planning, research activities, co-authorship in manuscript writing, or be acknowledged in a manuscript based on the contribution. A sponsor should not influence the authors regarding the interpretation of results and conclusion.

2.5.2 Journal editors require corresponding authors to declare all contributors, including their sponsors. The editors and/or publisher may request the name and contact information of the sponsors, as well as for disclosure of conflict of interest from acknowledged sponsors, if necessary. The sponsors should also disclose all financial and nonfinancial relationships that may influence the editorial decision of a manuscript.

2.5.3 Editors and/or Publisher may require cooperation by the sponsors to issue a warrant to allow authors from an accepted manuscript to share their data and materials upon request.




3.1 Author License Policy


Authors retain the copyright of the articles. Authors grant the Publisher an exclusive license to publish their original research papers and to reproduce, recreate, extract, and distribute worldwide in various languages, forms, formats, and media. However, the authors can make certain uses of their work for educational purposes (such as presentations, dissertations, lecture notes, etc.) and/or for further dissemination (such as authors' personal and institution websites and databases, etc.), so long as not for commercial purposes, without first requiring permission from the Publisher.


3.2 Open Access Articles


All open access articles published by the Publisher are distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC 4.0 license (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License) or CC-BY-NC-SA- 4.0 which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, for non-commercial purposes, provided the original work is properly cited. Under Creative Commons, authors retain copyright in their articles.




4.1 Definition of Publication Malpractice or Research Misconduct


  1. The Publisher adopts the definition of research misconduct by the United States Public Health Service Policies on Research Misconduct-42 CFR Part 93 (June 2005) as the following:

    “Research misconduct means fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.
    1. Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them.
    2. Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.
    3. Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person's ideas, process, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.
    4. Research misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion”
  2. The Publisher also adopts the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors and Journal Publisher in COPE, WAME and ICMJE in this policy. The roles and responsibilities in publishing refer to Section 2.0. Departure in publishing practices by the Editors/Reviewers/Authors/Sponsors in this policy will be investigated by the Publisher with Chief Editor and panels.


4.2 Provision for Action


  1. Any research misconduct, complaints, and other related matters should be addressed to the Journal Chief Editors and the Publisher. Authors, reviewers, sponsors, or users can also report an allegation of publication malpractices directly to the Publisher.
  2. Journals under the Publisher will adopt and follow the Ethical Oversight Flowcharts in COPE's Core Practices when handling an allegation of any research misconduct/publication malpractice. The flowcharts include step-by-step guideline to handle ethical issues related to redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fabricated data in a submitted manuscript or published article, authorship problems, undisclosed conflict of interest in a submitted manuscript or published article, an ethical problem, reviewer misconduct, etc.
  3. The requirements for findings of research misconduct include:
    1. The allegation be proven by compelling evidence for a significant departure in the research work or publication practices
    2. The research misconduct is committed intentionally and/or recklessly
  4. The Publisher has the primary responsibility for investigating the allegations of publication malpractice/ethical issues/research misconduct. The Publisher together with Chief Editor and reviewer panels (members may include active researchers or scientific expert assessors who are free from bias) will investigate an allegation.
  5. For refutations of published articles related to fabricated data or other research misconduct or ethical problem, a copy will be sent to the corresponding authors for signed comments, they will be peer-reviewed, and where possible, to the same reviewers. The publisher may bring the attention of research work misconduct to the authors' institution asking for an investigation to ensure the integrity of the published data.
  6. For clear plagiarism (unattributed used a large portion of text/data) in a submitted manuscript, a copy of evidence will be sent to the corresponding authors for signed comments. If the author response is unsatisfactory or guilt admitted, the submission will either be rejected or revised. For clear plagiarism in a published article, this will result in either retraction or corrigendum (see Section 4.3).
  7. The respondent has access to all materials related to the allegation, its assessment, investigation, and decision.
  8. The findings and decision of publication malpractice or research misconduct may be appealed by the respondent. An appeal must be filed within 30 days after the decision is made and notified to the respondent.


4.3 Erratum, Corrigendum, Retractions and Addendums


  1. Journals should make amendments or correction of errors for peer-reviewed articles which have been previously published. The amendments can be in the form of erratum (or notification of error made by the journal), corrigendum (or notification of error made by authors), retraction (or notification of departure of research work or invalid work in a previously published article) or addendum (notification of additional information about a published article).
  2. The Publisher may impose different types of sanctions to individuals who are found to be involved in serious publication malpractice or research misconduct with compelling evidence. These sanctions range from retraction of articles, the prohibition of submitting manuscripts to journals under publisher, letters of notification to the author's affiliated institutions, etc.
  3. The reports of the investigation may be made available on the Publisher website/journal webpage to inform the scientific community, sponsors, readers, and users. However, the names of individuals found to have committed publication malpractice/research misconduct will be masked or removed from the reports.




5.1 Anti-plagiarism policy


The journals follow World Association of Medical Editors (WAME's) definition of plagiarism: “Plagiarism is the use of others' published and unpublished ideas or words (or other intellectual property) without attribution or permission and presenting them as new and original rather than derived from an existing source. The intent and effect of plagiarism is to mislead the reader as to the contributions of the plagiarizer. This applies whether the ideas or words are taken from abstracts, research grant applications, Institutional Review Board applications, or unpublished or published manuscripts in any publication format (print or electronic)”.

The journal follows a strict anti-plagiarism policy. The authors are advised not to indulge in any form of plagiarism. The journal investigates allegations of plagiarism or the unauthorised use of published content to uphold the rights of our authors. We also work to guard the journal's reputation against unethical practices.

The submitted article are checked with duplication-checking software. If the content is found to be plagiarised, the Editor and the journal committee will take an appropriate action as directed by the guidelines put forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). If plagiarism is detected after publication, the Journal will initiate investigation. If plagiarism is established, the Journal reserves the right to act including, but not limited to notifying the authors' institution and funding bodies, retracting the plagiarised article or taking appropriate legal action. To report plagiarism, contact the journal office at


5.2 Protection of research participants


The journal follows the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).


  1. All researchers should make sure that human research is planned, carried out, and reported in accordance with the 2013 revision of the Helsinki Declaration. Every author should contact the local, regional, or national review body (e.g., ethics committee, institutional review board) for permission before conducting research.
  2. Identifying information, including names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, or pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Authors should disclose to these patients whether any potential identifiable material might be available via the Internet as well as in print after publication.
  3. Nonessential identifying details should be omitted. Informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt that anonymity can be maintained. For instance, covering the eye area in patient photos does not adequately preserve identity. In this case, it is advised to digitally crop/ remove the identifying characteristics. If identifying characteristics are removed, authors must guarantee-and editors must note-that the interpretation of the data is not altered.


5.21 Patient consent for publication for case reports


As per the CARE reporting guidelines, the patient or the legal guardian must provide a written informed consent for inclusion of their clinical and imaging details in the manuscript for the purpose of publication. The submitted manuscript needs to contain a statement that informed consent was obtained from the patient for the purpose of publication.


  • If the patient is deceased or incapacitated, the authors must seek permission from the patient's relatives which must be stated in the submitted manuscript.
  • In cases where permission could not be obtained from the patient or the relatives, the head of the medical team or the institutional review board must take responsibility for the anonymization of the patient, and this must be stated in the submitted manuscript.
  • If the informed consent has been waivered by the institutional review board, the same must be included in the manuscript.
  • In case the patient is a child/ minor, the consent should be obtained from the parent/ legal guardian, and this information should be included in the manuscript.


5.22 Ethics committee approvals and patient consent for participation for research studies


All papers reporting studies involving human participants, human data or human tissue must state:


  1. Name of the ethics committee or institutional review board that approved the study
  2. Approval number and date.


If the ethical approval is not required or is exempt, then a statement mentioning the same should be included in the submitted manuscript, with reasons for the same.


A statement about whether written or verbal informed consent was obtained from the patients to participate in the research should be included in the submitted manuscript. If the requirement for informed consent to participate has been waived by the Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board (i.e., where it has been deemed that consent would be impossible or impracticable to obtain), please state this.


Animal studies


When describing animal experiments, authors should state whether the research was performed in accordance with the institutional and governmental guidelines for the handling and use of laboratory animals.


Clinical trials


The journal follows the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) for clinical trial registration ( According to ICMJE, “Clinical trial is any research project that prospectively assigns people or a group of people to an intervention, with or without concurrent comparison or control groups, to study the relationship between a health-related intervention and a health outcome.”


  1. The authors are required to register the clinical trials in a public trial registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. If there is a substantial delay between the submission of registration materials and their posting at the trial registry, the authors should provide a letter explaining the circumstances that led to the delay.
  2. An acceptable registry must include the minimum 24-item trial registration data set ( or at the time of registration and before enrolment of the first participant.
  3. Secondary data analyses of primary (parent) clinical trials should not be registered as separate clinical trials, but instead should reference the trial registration number of the primary trial.
  4. The authors should ensure that they have met the requirements of their funding and regulatory agencies regarding aggregate clinical trial results reporting in clinical trial registries. It is the authors', and not the journal editors', responsibility to explain any discrepancies between results reported in registries and journal publications.
  5. The authors are required to follow the ICMJE's data sharing policy for clinical trials.


5.23 Data availability statement


The authors are required to include Data Availability Statement in the articles that report results derived from research data. Data Availability Statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found. Statement should include that the data set used in the current study is available (option as appropriate) a. repository name b. name of the public domain resources c. data availability within the article or its supplementary materials d. available on request from (contact name/email id) e. dataset can be made available after embargo period due to commercial restrictions. Where research data are not publicly available, this must be stated in the manuscript along with any conditions for accessing the data.


5.24 Authorship


The journals adhere to the ICMJE recommendation for authorship requirements. All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors.


  • Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  • Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  • Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.


It is the collective responsibility of the authors, not the journal to which the work is submitted, to determine that all people named as authors meet all four criteria; it is not the role of journal editors to determine who qualifies or does not qualify for authorship or to arbitrate authorship conflicts. The criteria used to determine the order in which authors are listed on the by-line may vary and are to be decided collectively by the author group and not by editors. One author should assume the role of “corresponding author” who is mainly responsible for communication with the journal during the manuscript submission, peer-review, and publication processes. The corresponding author should also be accessible following publication to address any criticisms of the work and assist with any requests from the journal for data or additional information, should those requests come up.


Changes to authorship:


The journals consider the final author list (names and the authorship sequence) to be complete at the time of submission of the Open Access License Agreement form. Request for removal or addition of an author after signing the Agreement will not be entertained. If the authors have a genuine reason for changes to authorship and authorship sequence, the authors should complete the Authorship change request form ” with a signed statement of agreement for the requested change from all listed authors and from the author to be removed or added and send it to the journal editor with a letter explaining the reasons for the proposed changes. The Journal Editor-in-Chief will consider these requests on a case-to-case basis.


Author identification:


All the authors are required to provide an ORCiD iD when submitting the manuscript to the journal. Authors can register for an ORCiD iD at


Author contributions:


The authors are required to provide information about their individual contributory roles according to CRediT (Contributor Roles Taxonomy). There are 14 selections that the authors can choose from, and more than one contribution can be selected for each author. Authors can refer to for more information.


5.25 Non-author Contributorship / Acknowledgement:


Contributors who meet fewer than all 4 of the above criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged. The “Acknowledgement section” should specify 1) contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship, such as general support by a departmental chair; 2) acknowledgments of technical help; 3) writing assistance, technical editing, language editing, and proofreading; and 4) acknowledgments of financial and material support, which should specify the nature of the support. Details of the non-author contributors can be cited individually or collectively, and their precise contributions should be specified. The corresponding author is required to obtain written permission to be acknowledged by all acknowledged individuals.


5.26 Disclosures of conflict of interest


Conflicts of interest can be defined as financial and non-financial in relation to the work. Authors are required to disclose any financial interests or affiliations with institutions, organizations, or companies that are mentioned in the manuscript or whose products and services are mentioned in the manuscript, and any competing interest that could be perceived as a bias in the work. If the submission is authored by the editorial board member, a statement mentioning the same should be included. The authors are required to complete the ICMJE disclosure form at the time of submission.


5.27 Sources of funding


The authors are required to declare the funding sources received for the research submitted to the journal. The authors should provide the Funder name, Award Number and Grant Recipient, the role of funders. If there are no funders, the authors must state “This study did not receive any funding.”


5.28 Data ownership and permissions


The figures, data tables and charts that are submitted should be owned solely by the author(s). If this requirement cannot be fulfilled, then the author(s) should acquire the permission from the original copyright holder for the purpose of re-use in the journal. Obtaining the permission is the sole responsibility of the author(s) and should be completed before the acceptance of the article in the journal. Credit must be included for all copyrighted material in the figure legend with a statement that the permission has been obtained.


5.29 Preprints


The journals permit submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers. The authors should mention this in the title page when submitting and include the name of the preprint server and DOI for the preprint. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed. If the paper is accepted, the authors must include a link on the preprint to the final version of your paper.




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This policy is subjected to be amended and revised from time to time based on regulation and rules and as the publisher deems fit to do so.




  1. Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (2016). Code of Conduct. Available at:
  2. Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (2016). COPE's Core Practices. Ethical Oversight Flowcharts. Available at:
  3. Council of Science Editors (2018). White Paper on Publication Ethics. Available at:
  4. European Science Foundation (2011). The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity. Available at: Kassirer, JP (1995). Authorship criteria. Science, 268: 785-786.
  5. Public Health Service Policies on Research Misconduct-42 CFR Part 93 (June 2005). Available at:
  6. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Available at:
  7. World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). Available at:

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