Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences

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Volume 5, Number 4, October-December 2020
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Microbes and Antimicrobials: Unmet Needs and New Horizon from Ayurveda

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:5] [Number:4] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

   DOI: 10.5005/jdras-5-4-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Original Article

Raghavendra Naik, CR Harisha, Rabinarayan Acharya

Pharmacognostical Study and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis of Dendrobium macraei Lindl.—A Source Plant of Jīvantī

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:5] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:197 - 202]

   DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0108  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Dendrobium macraei Lindl. is considered as one of the source drugs of jīvantī in some parts of India. The plant is used for different diseases like skin allergy, eczema, snakebite, and as an aphrodisiac. The present study was carried out to establish the pharmacognostical profile and molecular characterization of leaves of D. macraei Lindl. Materials and methods: Fresh leaves of D. macraei Lindl. were studied for pharmacognostical characters following standard guidelines and molecular characterization was established by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Results: A microscopic study of leaves shows the presence of a single layer of undifferentiated upper and lower epidermis covered with a thick, rigid cuticle. Mesophyll tissue is filled with undifferentiated isodiametric parenchyma, mucilage cavities, and raphide idioblast. The large vascular bundle is located centrally in the midrib portion and smaller vascular bundles pass through the main nerves. Powder microscopy showed diagnostic characters like epidermal cells, stomata, acicular crystals, prismatic crystals, rhomboidal crystals, and starch grain with hilum. Histochemical tests confirm the presence of lignified cells, starch, calcium oxalate crystals, tannin, and oil globules. In RAPD analysis, all the 10 primers showed good amplification. Conclusion: These microscopic observations and the unique bright and light bands obtained in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification could serve as a measure for authentication and standardization of the plant.



Sanjeev Kumar Lale, Ravi Chandra, Chinmay Rath, Anupam K Mangal, Soma Narasimha Murthy

Important Medicinal Plants of Betul (West) Forest Division of Madhya Pradesh, India

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:5] [Number:4] [Pages:12] [Pages No:203 - 214]

   DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0106  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims and objectives: Present study deals with the exploration of important medicinal plants of Betul (West) forest division of Madhya Pradesh with their GPS position. Materials and methods: The survey was conducted during February 2019. During this survey, all the five ranges in Betul (W) forest division were covered as per survey protocol and Guideline of CCRAS. Results: Availability of important medicinal plants in Betul (West) forest division was surveyed and, it has been found that this division has very rich plant biodiversity. The typical forest in this division is Southern tropical moist deciduous teak forests, tropical dry deciduous forests. In this division, some important spp. are found like Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Baliospermum solanifolium (Burm.) Suresh, Celastrus paniculatus Willd., Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Cordia macleodii Hook.f. & Thomson, Cryptolepis dubia (Burm.f.) M.R. Almeida, Cullen corylifolium (L.) Medik., Dillenia pentagyna Roxb., Garuga pinnata Roxb., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult., Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G. Don, Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.) Heine, Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll. Arg., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., Radermachera xylocarpa (Roxb.) Roxb. ex K. Schum., Stereospermum chelonoides (L.f.) DC., Tamilnadia uliginosa (Retz.) Tirveng. & Sastre, and Ventilago denticulata Willd. Conclusion: In this survey, a total of 125 important medicinal plant species have been found in this division belonging to 46 families, out of which 63 (50.4%) are tree species, 36 (28.8%) herb species, 15 (12%) climbers, and 11 (8.8%) are shrub species.



Amit K Rai, Mohan S Rawat, Deepshikha Arya, Sanjiv Kumar, Chinmay Rath, Anupam K Mangal

Documentation of Ethno-medicobotanical Practices from Mohan and Jaurasi Region of Almora, Uttarakhand, India

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:5] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:215 - 221]

   DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0105  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Traditional medicine plays a significant role in healthcare needs of a large segment of population of developing nations of the world. Local traditional healthcare practices using medicinal plants are predominant in the Uttarakhand state of northern India. A large number of traditional vaidya/folk healers are available in Uttarakhand providing healthcare services to significantly large population of the state with great success in far-flung areas by using medicinal plant species available in their vicinity. Aim: To document the local health tradition (LHT)/folklore claims practiced by traditional vaidya/folk healers for the treatment of diseases of the local population for further scientific validation, which will be helpful in developing new treatment modalities for the prevalent diseases of the society. Materials and methods: Ethno-medicobotanical surveys were conducted in Mohan and Jaurasi regions of Almora, Uttarakhand, India, and its adjoining areas in the month of January and February, 2019. The survey team met the traditional folk healers and interviewed them for documentation of folklore claims practiced by them. Results: A total of 17 LHT claims were collected from the traditional healers during these field surveys. The claims were documented in a prescribed format and validated from available published literature for ayurveda and medicinal plants. Gastrointestinal diseases (such as constipation and pain abdomen), jaundice, skin diseases, burns, and cut wound were the common ailments for which most of the claims were documented. Fresh leaves of the medicinal plants were used in most of the collected folklore claims. Kalka (paste), Choorna (powder), and Kwatha (decoction) were the common preparations of plant species used in majority of folk claims. Three medicinal plant species was involved in more than one folk claim. The description of 11 medicinal plant species used in these claims has been available in ayurvedic classical texts. During the validation of collected folk claims from these texts, therapeutic use of eight medicinal plant species was found to be similar to the description available in published literature, whereas references of two species were available with different therapeutic indication. Conclusion: Traditional medicine is still prevalent in the healthcare practices sought by the residents of the remote and hilly areas like Uttarakhand. However, these practices are in a declining phase due to nontransfer of this valuable knowledge to the next generation. In this regard, there is a great urgency for documentation and validation of these practices for preventing them from getting vanished from public domain. Alongside, it will act as a great boon in the search of new management strategies for the diseases prevalent in the current era.



Rama Shankar, Sanjeev K Lale, Usha Kiran, Rajesh K Mudaiya, Soma N Murthy

Exploration of Medicinal Plants in Shahjahanpur District of Uttar Pradesh: Need for Conservation

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:5] [Number:4] [Pages:11] [Pages No:222 - 232]

   DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0107  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To explore the medicinal plants from Shahjahanpur forest divisions of Uttar Pradesh. Materials and methods: Exploration of the Shahjahanpur forest division has been carried out during the month of June 2017. Data were collected during the medicoethno-botanical survey from Shahjahanpur forest divisions of Uttar Pradesh. Results: During exploration, records of commonly occurring medicinal plants and traditional practices with their global positioning system and potential in the field have been recorded. The important medicinal plants like Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa, Celastrus paniculatus Willd., Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC., Helicteres isora L., Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G. Don, Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, Premna mollissima Roth, Solanum nigrum L., Terminalia tomentosa Wight and Arn. Tribulus terrestris L., etc., were recorded, which can be undertaken for pharmaceutical use through systemic conservation and cultivation. Very little knowledge is available for traditional use of medicinal plants in the area. There is a need of developing awareness among the local people of the areas. Conclusion: The study area is widely occupied by plants of Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G. Don and Celastrus paniculatus Willd., Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, etc., for conservation in the habitat.



Rama Rao Vendrapati, Raghavendra Naik, Nagayya Shiddamallayya, Shashidhar H Doddamani, Amit K Dixit, Chinmay Rath, Anupam K Mangal

Therapeutic Exploration of Medicinal Plants in Yadgir District, Karnataka, India

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:5] [Number:4] [Pages:16] [Pages No:233 - 248]

   DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0109  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present study was carried out to explore the availability of medicinal plants at Yadgir district of Karnataka through a medico-ethno-botanical survey and to document their traditional medicinal uses along with indications given in the classical texts of Ayurveda. Materials and methods: Two medico-ethno-botanical survey tours were conducted during August–December 2017 in Yadgir, Gurumitkal, Yergol, Shorapur, Hunasgi, Narayanpur, and Shapur forest sections of Yadgir district. The belt transect method was adopted during the survey to document the plants. Some of the important medicinal plants available in Yadgir district, which are routinely used in various traditional medicines, were documented and presented in a systematic manner. Results: Among the 330 plant species documented from Yadgir district during the medico-ethno-botanical survey, about 42 plants were found to be having high medicinal value and demand. In traditional practice, these plants are used in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, asthma, scabies, lactation, rheumatism, infections, dysentery, diarrhea, skin diseases, kidney disorders, urinary problems, etc., in different dosage forms like decoction, juice, powder, paste, and infusion. As a single drug, these plants are indicated in the treatment of wide range of diseases as mentioned in classical texts of Ayurveda. The enlisted plants are also used as ingredients of various classical Ayurvedic formulations. Conclusion: Findings of this study act as basic data to understand the biodiversity of Yadgir district of Karnataka along with the significance of available medicinal plants in traditional as well as classical practice. Clinical significance: The documented data provide single-hand information on important medicinal plants along with their potential uses, which can be effectively used in clinical practice.



Parvathy G Nair, Pratibha P Nair, Amit Kumar Dixit, Ranjita Ekka, Jayram Hazra

Source Plant Identification for Ayurvedic Polyherbal Formulation: A Hypothetical Model-based Critical Review

[Year:2020] [Month:October-December] [Volume:5] [Number:4] [Pages:10] [Pages No:249 - 258]

   DOI: 10.5005/jdras-10059-0104  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Polyherbalism is one of the key traditional practices in Ayurveda to attain multi-therapeutic effectiveness. Vast numbers of polyherbal formulations (PHFs) are recorded in Ayurvedic lexicons but identification of many drugs in such formulations is in a state of controversy after numerous redactions and multiple commentaries resulting in many scribing errors and misinterpretations. At present, while manufacturing a PHF for commercial/research purpose, the standard guidelines are to be adopted from the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) monograph. But the idea of using homonyms, a common practice in earlier times, gives a lead that drug identity in a formulation may have been fixed on the basis of desired therapeutic action considering other drugs in the combination. This paper aims at opening discussions on the need of ascertaining source plants specific to polyherbal formulations as against isolated identity fixation. Materials and methods: A polyherbal formulation Virataradi Kashaya was selected as the hypothetical model and an in-depth literary review of intertextual references of same in various Ayurvedic textbooks was undertaken to find out the controversial drugs and their probable botanical sources. Taking leads from such references along with supportive claims from folklore practices and preclinical studies, probable botanical sources were ascertained for inclusion. Observation and results: Through chronological screening of classical texts, all controversial drugs in Virataradi Kashaya were identified. Probable botanical sources suitable for inclusion in the formulation were determined to an extent based on the leads from literature, folklore claims, and preclinical studies. Virataradi kashaya marketed by two major pharmaceutical companies were also screened, which showed considerable variation in the ingredients used and also with the botanical sources identified as a part of this review. The findings are extrapolated to discuss the lacunas existing in identification of controversial drugs and to highlight the need of ascertaining botanical identities from the perspective of a PHF. Conclusion: Currently, nonuniformity of botanical ingredients in marketed formulations has become a major factor that questions the authenticity of Ayurvedic products. This is due to controversial identity of drugs in PHF resulting in usage of unjustified adulterants. Much work has been done in solving individual drug controversies through various analytical, pharmacological, and clinical studies but these cannot be pragmatically applied to all PHFs. Controversial drugs in PHFs are to be identified through a systematic literature study with due consideration to empirical clinical practices. This paper through a hypothetical model Virataradi Kashaya proposes methods that may be positively adopted to identify the botanical sources of controversial drugs in a PHF, which needs to be further ascertained by various preclinical and clinical studies.