Hypertension Journal

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Increased Sympathetic Drive, Elevated Heart Rate, and the Cardiovascular Continuum

Brent M Egan

Citation Information : Egan BM. Increased Sympathetic Drive, Elevated Heart Rate, and the Cardiovascular Continuum. Hypertens J 2017; 3 (3):105-112.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10043-0080

License: CC BY 3.0

Published Online: 01-09-2016

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).


How to cite this article

Egan BM. Increased Sympathetic Drive, Elevated Heart Rate, and the Cardiovascular Continuum. Hypertens J 2017;3(3):105-112.

  1. The role of hypertension n the pathogenesis of heart failure. A clinical mechanistic view. Arch Intern Med 1996 Sep;156(16):1789-1796.
  2. Dyslipidemia in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 2003 Dec;115(Suppl 8A):24S-28S.
  3. Transient tachycardia: prognostic significance alone and in association with transient hypertension. JAMA 1945 Oct;129(9):585-588.
  4. Resting heart rate in middle age and diabetes development in older age. Diab Care 2008 Feb;31(2):335-339.
  5. Sympathetics, insulin resistance and coronary risk in hypertension: the ‘chicken-and-egg’ question. J Hypertens 1994 May;12(5):495-502.
  6. Enhanced sympathetic nervous system activity. The link between insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and heart rate. Am J Hypertens 1996 Oct;9(10 Pt 1):1013-1017.
  7. Heart rate and the cardiovascular risk. J Hypertens 1997 Jan;15(1):3-17.
  8. Personality traits and behavioral patterns associated with systolic blood pressure in college males. J Chronic Dis 1964 May;17:405-414.
  9. Anger and anxiety in borderline hypertension. Psychosom Med 1986 Mar-Apr;48(3-4):242-248.
  10. Autonomic and prefrontal cortex responses to autobiographical recall of emotions. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2007 Sep;7(3):243-250.
  11. Role of parasympathetic inhibition in the hyperkinetic type of borderline hypertension. Circulation 1971 Sep;44(3):413-418.
  12. Elevated sympathetic nerve activity in borderline hypertensive humans: evidence from direct intraneural recordings. Hypertension 1989 Aug;14(2):177-183.
  13. Noradrenaline release and the pathophysiology of primary human hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1989 Mar;2(3 Pt 2):140S-146S.
  14. Dissociation between muscle and skin sympathetic nerve activity in essential hypertension, obesity, and congestive heart failure. Hypertension 1998 Jan;31(1):64-67.
  15. Hemodynamic alterations in early essential hypertension: recent advances. In: Gross F, Strasser T, editors. Mild hypertension: recent advances. New York (NY): Raven Press; 1983. pp. 237-249.
  16. Altered cardiac responsiveness and regulation in the normal cardiac output type of borderline hypertension. Circ Res 1975 Jun;36(6 Suppl 1):199-207.
  17. Relation of renin status to neurogenic vascular resistance in borderline hypertension. Am J Cardiol 1975 Oct;36(5):708-715.
  18. Mild high-renin essential hypertension: neurogenic human hypertension? N Engl J Med 1977 Feb;296(8):405-411.
  19. Mechanism of increased α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in human essential hypertension. J Clin Invest 1987 Sep;80(3):812-817.
  20. Regional hemodynamic abnormalities in overweight men. Focus on alpha-adrenergic vascular responses. Am J Hypertens 1989 Jun;2(6 Pt 1):428-434.
  21. Effects of increased arterial epinephrine on insulin, glucose and phosphate. Blood Press 1996 Jan;5(1):27-31.
  22. The changing face of sympathetic overactivity in hypertension. Ann Med 2000 Jul;32(5):365-370.
  23. The complex interaction between overweight, hypertension, and sympathetic overactivity. J Am Soc Hypertens 2009 Nov-Dec;3(6):353-365.
  24. Effect of chronic hypertension and sympathetic denervation on wall/lumen ratio of cerebral vessels. Hypertension 1980 Jul-Aug;2(4):419-423.
  25. Cerebral artery mass in the rabbit is reduced by chronic sympathetic denervation. Stroke 1983 May-Jun;14(3):393-396.
  26. Physiological aspects of primary hypertension. Physiol Rev 1982 Apr;62(2):347-504.
  27. Vascular structure enhances regional resistance responses in mild hypertension. J Hypertens 1988 Jan;6(1):41-48.
  28. Quantitative analysis of the pathophysiology of hypertension. Circ Res 1969 May;24(Suppl 5):1-19.
  29. Dominant role of the kidneys and accessory role of whole-body autoregulation in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1989 Jul;2(7):575-585.
  30. Sympathetic modulation of renal hemodynamics, renin release and sodium excretion. Klin Wochenschr 1989 Sep;67(17):858-864.
  31. Sympathetic nervous system and hypertension. Hypertension 2013 Mar;61(3):556-560.
  32. Psychological stress induces sodium and fluid retention in men at high risk for hypertension. Science 1983 Apr;220(4595):429-431.
  33. Stress-induced sodium retention and hypertension: a review and hypothesis. Curr Hypertension Rep 2009 Feb;11(1):29-34.
  34. The association of borderline hypertension with target organ changes and higher coronary risk. Tecumseh Blood Pressure study. JAMA 1990 Jul;264(3):354-358.
  35. Disparity of autonomic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 2005 Jan;48(1):172-179.
  36. Relationship between skeletal muscle insulin resistance, insulin-mediated glucose disposal, and insulin binding. Effects of obesity and body fat topography. J Clin Invest 1984 Oct;74(4):1515-1525.
  37. Reflex sympathetic activation induces acute insulin resistance in the human forearm. Hypertension 1993 May;21(5):618-623.
  38. Vasoconstriction with norepinephrine causes less forearm insulin resistance than a reflex sympathetic vasoconstriction. Hypertension 1994 Jun;23(6 Pt 2):1006-1011.
  39. Skeletal muscle capillary density and fiber type are possible determinants of in vivo insulin resistance in man. J Clin Invest 1987 Aug;80(2):415-424.
  40. Application of prazosin is associated with an increase of insulin sensitivity in obese patients with hypertension. Diabetologia 1988 Jul;31(7):415-420.
  41. Effects of antihypertensive treatment on insulin sensitivity with special reference to ACE inhibitors. Diabetes Care 1991 Nov;14(Suppl 4):39-47.
  42. Relationship of plasma volume changes to resistance and capacitance vessel effects of sympathomimetic amines and angiotensin in man. Clin Sci 1966 Apr;30(2):267-278.
  43. Abnormalities of plasma volume in borderline hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1971 Jan;127(1):116-119.
  44. Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: relation to peripheral sympathetic drive. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001 Nov;38(6):1711-1717.
  45. Magnitude of left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 2000 Jun;342:1778-1785.
  46. Increased left ventricular mass and hypertrophy are associated with increased risk for sudden death. J Am Coll Cadiol 1998 Nov;32(5):1454-1459.
  47. Resting heart rate as a predictive factor for sudden death in middle-aged men. Cardiovasc Res 2001 May;50(2):373-378.
  48. Influence of heart rate on mortality among persons with hypertension: the Framingham Study. Am Heart J 1993 Apr;125(4):1148-1154.
  49. Usefulness of heart rate to predict future cardiac events in treated patients with high-risk systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol 2012 Mar;109(5):685-692.
  50. Management of the hypertensive patient with elevated heart rate: Statement of the Second Consensus Conference endorsed by the European Society of Hypertension. J Hypertens 2016 May;34(5):813-821.
  51. Prognostic significance of plasma norepinephrine in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 1996 Aug;94(4):690-697.
  52. Sympathetic activation in cardiovascular disease: evidence, clinical impact and therapeutic implications. Eur J Clin Invest 2015 Dec;45(12):1367-1375.
  53. Is heart rate important for patients with heart failure in atrial fibrillation? JACC Heart Fail 2014 Jun;2(3):213-220.
  54. Dose of metoprolol CR/XL and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure: analysis of the experience in metoprolol CR/XL randomized intervention trial in chronic heart failure (MERIT-HF). J Am Coll Cardiol 2002 Aug;40(3):491-498.
  55. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 Aug;70(6):776-803.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.