Hypertension Journal

Register      Login

VOLUME 1 , ISSUE 2 ( October-December, 2015 ) > List of Articles


Hypertension Therapeutics Update: A Brief Clinical Summary on Azilsartan, Cilnidipine and Nebivolol

Sanjeev Sharma

Keywords : Azilsartan,Calcium channel L/N-type,Cilnidipine,Hypertension,Nebivolol,Newer drugs for hypertension,Vasodilation with Nebivolol

Citation Information : Sharma S. Hypertension Therapeutics Update: A Brief Clinical Summary on Azilsartan, Cilnidipine and Nebivolol. Hypertens J 2015; 1 (2):111-117.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10043-0019

Published Online: 01-12-2016

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2015; The Author(s).


How to cite this article

Sharma S. Hypertension Therapeutics Update: A Brief Clinical Summary on Azilsartan, Cilnidipine and Nebivolol. Hypertens J 2015;1(2):111-117.

PDF Share
  1. Angiotensin receptor blockers: current status and future prospects. Am J Med 2008;121(8):656-663.
  2. Blood pressure out-comes in patients receiving angiotensin II receptor blockers in primary care: a comparative effectiveness analysis from electronic medical record data. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2011;13(11):801-812.
  3. Efficacy of angiotensin receptor blockers in cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2006;20(4): 295-308.
  4. Azilsartan medoxomil: a new angiotensin receptor blocker. Clin Ther 2011;33(11):1577-1589.
  5. The comparative effects of azilsartan medoxomil and olmesartan on ambulatory and clinic blood pressure. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2011;13(2):81-88.
  6. Effects of angiotensin receptor blocker azilsartan medoxomil versus olmesartan and valsartan on ambulatory and clinic blood pressure in patients with stage 1 and 2 hypertension. Hypertension 2011;57(3):413-420.
  7. Differential pharmacology and benefit/risk of azilsartan compared to other sartans. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2012;8:133-143.
  8. Azilsartan decreases renal and cardiovascular injury in the spontaneously hypertensive obese rat. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2014;28(4):313-322.
  9. In vitro antagonistic properties of a new angiotensins in type 1 receptor blocker, azilsartan, in receptor binding and function studies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2011;336(3):801-808.
  10. Angiotensin receptor blockers: current status and future prospects. Am J Med 2008;121:656-663.
  11. Calcium antagonists in the treatment of hypertension. Am J Med Sci 1985;290(8):118-132.
  12. Sympathetic overdrive and cardiovascular risk in the metabolic syndrome. Hypertens Res 2006;29(11):839-847.
  13. Cilnidipine: a new generation Ca channel blocker with inhibitory action on sympathetic neurotransmitter release. Cardiovasc Ther 2009;27(2):124-139.
  14. Different effects of L/N-type and L-type calcium channel blockers on the renin–angiotensin– aldosterone system in SHR/Izm. Am J Nephrol 2009;30(2): 155-161.
  15. A new-generation N/L-type calcium channel blocker leads to less activation of the renin– angiotensin system compared with conventional L-type calcium channel blocker. J Hypertens 2010;28(10):2156-2160.
  16. Cilnidipine, the N-and L-type calcium antagonist, reduced on 24-hour urinary catecholamines and C-peptide in hypertensive non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1999;44(3):197-205.
  17. Effects of L/N-type calcium channel antagonist, cilnidipine on progressive renal injuries in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29(5):933-937.
  18. Antiproteinuric effect of the calcium channel blocker cilnidipine added to renin–angiotensin inhibition in hypertensive patients with chronic renal disease. Kidney Int 2007;72(12):1543-1549.
  19. The L/N-type calcium channel blocker, cilnidipine, reduces heart rate and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Int Med Res 2010;38(2):602-610.
  20. The N-and L-type calcium channel blocker cilnidipine suppresses renal injury in Dahl rats fed a high-sucrose diet, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. Nephron Physiol 2005;101(1):1-13.
  21. Vasodilatory effect of cilnidipine, an L-type and N-type calcium channel blocker, on rat kidney glomerular arterioles. Int Heart J 2008;49(6):723-732.
  22. Comparison between valsartan and valsartan plus cilnidipine in type II diabetics with normo-and microalbuminuria. Kidney Int 2006;70(1):151-156.
  23. Pharmacological mechanisms of clinically favourable properties of a selective beta1-adrenoceptor antagonist, nebivolol. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2004;22(3):155-168.
  24. Nebivolol in the treatment of cardiac failure: a double-blind controlled clinical trial. J Card Fail 1997;3(4):271-276.
  25. Nebivolol: third-generation beta-blockade. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2007;8(10):1539-1550.
  26. The receptor binding profile of the new antihypertensive agent nebivolol and its stereoisomers compared with various β-adrenergic blockers. Mol Pharmacol 1988;34(6):843-851.
  27. Nitric oxide mechanism of Nebivolol. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 2009 Aug;3(4):317-327.
  28. The antihypertensive and cardiac hemodynamic effects of nebivolol. Angiology 1992;43(5):396-377.
  29. Pharmacokinetics of nebivolol: a review. Drug Invest 1991;3(1):25-30.
  30. Nebivolol: a third generation beta blocker that augments vascular nitric oxide release: endothelial beta (2)-adrenergic receptor mediated nitric oxide production. Circulation 2000;102(6):677-684.
  31. Beta 1-adrenoceptor selectivity of nebivolol and bisoprolol: a comparison of (3H) CGP 12.177 and (1251) iodocyanopindolol binding studies. Eur J Pharmacol 2003;460(1):19-26.
  32. Comparative effects of nebivolol and atenolol on blood pressure and insulin sensitivity in hypertensive subjects with type II diabetes. J Hum Hypertens 1997;11(11):753-757.
  33. Effects of nebivolol and atenolol on insulin sensitivity and haemodynamics in hypertensive patients. J Hypertens 2001;19(8):1429-1435.
  34. Metabolic effects and safety profile of nebivolol. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2001;38(3):S33-35.
  35. Randomized trial to determine the effect of nebivolol on mortality and cardiovascular hospital admission in elderly patients with heart failure (SENIORS). Eur Heart J 2005;26(3):215-225.
  36. Making sense of SENIORS. Eur Heart J 2005;26(3):203-206.
  37. Beta-blockers in hypertension. Am J Cardiology 2010;106(12):1819-1825.
  38. Beta-blockers in hypertension. Truths and half-truths. J Clinical Hypertens 2008;10(7):516-519.
  39. The first highly selective β1-blocker with NO nitric oxide modulating properties: nebivolol monograph. Churchill Communications Europe, London; 1996.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.