COVID-19 pandemic has been a global health concern since the beginning of 2020. Many individuals suffered and lost their lives, making it a considerable burden on the healthcare systems in their countries. Healthcare professionals worked beyond their limits to cater to the needs of the patients, working against the constraints of a workforce shortage. Many doctors and other allied health professionals also lost their lives. Although the medical and allied health education suffered during the pandemic, it has also provided respiratory therapists (RTs) several opportunities to prove themselves. There was a huge demand for RTs, and they were able to help inpatient management and save lives. RTs were also able to contribute to the capacity building of their juniors and other healthcare professionals. Hands.on work and the use of blended learning strategies during the pandemic proved to be a boon for respiratory therapy education and training. Ongoing updates on innovation, research, and new knowledge generated by the international community enhanced the learning of RTs. RTs became a recognized workforce during the pandemic, and their demand grew substantially. Overall, the COVID-19 pandemic offered the RTs opportunities to grow and evolve. This narrative review highlights the opportunities presented by the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the evolution of RT in India.
Cucinotta D, Vanelli M. WHO declares COVID-19 a pandemic. Acta Biomed 2020;91:157-60.
WHO. WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard;
Available from: https://covid19.who.int/. [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 19].
Mascarenhas A. 747 Doctors Died of COVID-19 in India: IMA. The Indian Express; 2021 Apr 17. Available from: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/pune/747-doctors-died-of-covid-19-in-india-ima-7277087/. [Last accessed on 2021 May 10].
Chaudhary M, Sodani PR, Das S. Effect of COVID-19 on economy in India: Some reflections for policy and programme. J Health Manag 2020;22:169-80.
Statista Research Department. Estimated Cost of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Lockdown on the Indian Economy in 2020(in Billion U.S. Dollars); 2021. Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1111599/india-estimated-economic-cost-of-coronavirus-lockd own/. [Last accessed on 2021 May 10].
Rajan A, Reddy M, Todur P, Johnson S. Knowledge, confidence, and perception of respiratory therapists as frontliners in managing COVID-19 cases – A questionnaire survey. Indian J Respir Care 2021;10:93.
Shevade M, Nileshwar A. The hidden cost of COVID-19! Indian J Respir Care 2021;10:1-3.
Giliyaru S, Hegde G, Gajjala S, Vemuri O, Azzopardi C, Hurley P, et al. COVID-19 pandemic and medical education. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2021;73:64.
Patil P, Chakraborty S. Where Does Indian Medical Education Stand Amidst a Pandemic? J Med Educ Curric Dev. 2020;7:1-3.
Pattanshetti V, Pattanshetti S. The Impact of COVID – 19 on Medical Education in India. J Sci Soc 2020;47:1-2.
Shevade MS, Yeravdekar RC, Salvi SS. A cross-sectional survey of practice patterns and selected demographics of respiratory therapists in India. Respir Care 2021;66:66-72.
Indian Association of Respiratory Care. IARC/Education. Available from: https://iarc.in/education. [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 04].
International Council for Respiratory Care. India Recognizes Respiratory Therapy as A Regulated Profession; 2021. Available from: https://irccouncil.org/india-recognizes-respiratory-therapy-as-a-regulat ed-profession/. [Last accessed on 2022 Apr 26].
Sansad TV. Rajya Sabha Session 253; 2021. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=InezD07UG1w. [Last accessed on 2022 Apr 26].
PIB. PM Authorises Keys Decisions to Boost Availability of Medical Personnel to Fight COVID-19; 2021. Available from: https://pib. gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1715667. [Last accessed on 2022 Apr 26].
MoHFW. National Commission for Allied and Healthcare Professions Act, 2021. The Gazette of India Extraordinary; 2021. Available from: https://egazette.nic.in/WriteReadData/2021/226213.pdf. [Last accessed on 2022 Apr 26].
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare G of I. Video Gallery Mann Ki Baat. COVID Warriors; 2020. Available from: https://covidwarriors. gov.in/default.aspx. [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 04].
Department of Personnel and Training, Ministry of Personnel (DoPT), Public Grievances and Pensions G of I. Basics of COVID 19. Integrated Government Online Training. Available from: https://diksha.gov.in/igot/. [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 04].
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare G of I. Respiratory Therapist State Wise Registered Personnel. COVID Warriors; 2020. Available from: https://covidwarriors.gov.in/covid_statewise.aspx?orgid=77. [Last accessed on 2021 May 17].
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare G of I. Managing Interdisciplinary Care during COVID-19: Dental, Allied and Healthcare Professional Perspective; 2021. Available from: https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=SQl3cgRnaAw. [Last accessed on 2022 Apr 11].
Patteril M, Nileshwar A, Guntupalli K, Ratnavelu V, Venkateswaran R. When air becomes breath, respiratory therapy, an inimitable ally to tackle COVID – 19! Indian J Respir Care 2021;10:S1-2.
Pierce M, Gudowski SW, Roberts KJ, Scott MJ, Laudanski K. Establishing a Telemedicine Respiratory Therapy Service (eRT) in the COVID-19 pandemic. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021;35:1268-9.
Mathivanan SK, Jayagopal P, Ahmed S, Manivannan SS, Kumar PJ, Raja KT, et al. Adoption of E-learning during lockdown in India. Int J Syst Assur Eng Manag 2021; https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13198-021-01072-4#citeas. [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 04].
Vallée A, Blacher J, Cariou A, Sorbets E. Blended learning compared to traditional learning in medical education: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Internet Res 2020;22:e16504.
Liu Q, Peng W, Zhang F, Hu R, Li Y, Yan W. The effectiveness of blended learning in health professions: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Internet Res 2016;18:e2.
Kundu A, Bej T. Experiencing e-assessment during COVID-19: An analysis of Indian students’ perception. High Educ Eval Dev 2021;15:114-34.
Muthuprasad T, Aiswarya S, Aditya KS, Jha GK. Students’ perception and preference for online education in India during COVID -19 pandemic. Soc Sci Humanit Open 2021;3:100101.
Crimi C, Pierucci P, Renda T, Pisani L, Carlucci A. High-flow nasal cannula and COVID-19: A clinical review. Respir Care 2022;67:227-40.
Ding M, Han X, Bai L, Huang S, Duan J. Impact of HACOR score on noninvasive ventilation failure in non-COPD patients with acute-on-chronic respiratory failure. Can Respir J 2021;2021:9960667.
Fernando Valencia C, Lucero OD, Casas Castro O, Sanko AA, Olejua PA. Comparison of ROX and HACOR scales to predict high-flow nasal cannula failure in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Sci Rep 2021;11:22559.
Duan J, Wang S, Liu P, Han X, Tian Y, Gao F, et al. Early prediction of noninvasive ventilation failure in COPD patients: Derivation, internal validation, and external validation of a simple risk score. Ann Intensive Care 2019;9:108.
Karthika M, Wong D, Nair SG, Pillai LV, Mathew CS. Lung ultrasound: The emerging role of respiratory therapists. Respir Care 2019;64:217-29.
Haak SL, Renken IJ, Jager LC, Lameijer H, van der Kolk BB. Diagnostic accuracy of point-of-care lung ultrasound in COVID-19. Emerg Med J 2021;38:94-9.
Nuccio P. Respiratory Therapists and Lung Ultrasound. RT Magazine; 2022. Available from: https://rtmagazine. com/products-treatment/diagnostics-testing/diagnostics/respiratory-therapists-and-lung-ultrasound/. [Last accessed on 2022 Apr 26].
Yasin R, Gouda W. Chest X-ray findings monitoring COVID-19 disease course and severity. Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med 2020;51:193. https://doi. org/10.1186/s43055-020-00296-x [Last accessed on 2022 Apr 26].
Frithiof R, Rostami E, Kumlien E, Virhammar J, Fällmar D, Hultström M, et al. Critical illness polyneuropathy, myopathy and neuronal biomarkers in COVID-19 patients: A prospective study. Clin Neurophysiol 2021;132:1733-40.
Yang T, Li Z, Jiang L, Wang Y, Xi X. Risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired weakness: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Neurol Scand 2018;138:104-14.
Pavlov I, He H, McNicholas B, Perez Y, Tavernier E, Trump MW, et al. Awake prone positioning in non-intubated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19. Respir Care 2022;67:102-14.
La Vita CJ, De Santis Santiago RR. Prone position: A strategy in expansion? Respir Care 2021;66:884-5.
Maheshwarappa H, Chakraborty M, Joseph A, Chacko S, Ramya B. COVID-19-related vs. COVID-19-unrelated Acute respiratory distress syndrome – Key differences. Indian J Respir Care 2021;10:10.
Indian Association of Respiratory Care. IARC/Resources; 2021. Available from: https://iarc.in/edu_resources. [Last accessed on 2021 May 17].
Ahuja V, Nair LV. Artificial intelligence and technology in COVID Era: A narrative review. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2021;37:28-34.
John MR, Sharma DK, Poonuraparampil JA, Konuri VK. A study on the advantages and disadvantages of the online teaching program conducted in the department of anatomy, AIIMS, Raipur – Students’ Perspective. Natl J Clin Anat 2021;10:10-6.
Alghamdi SM. Importance of simulation in respiratory care education in Saudi Arabia. Int J Sci Eng Res 2016;7:1233-5.
Leigh Y, De Elia C, Krishna M, Taylor L, Morales R, Kellogg B, et al. Simulation training for residents and respiratory therapist on mechanical ventilation. Chest 2019;155 Suppl 4:155A.
Bernard J. Simulation specialists: Setting the stage for a new role for respiratory therapists in education? Can J Respir Ther 2017;53:64-5.
West AJ, Parchoma G. The practice of simulation-based assessment in respiratory therapy education. Can J Respir Ther 2017;53:13-6.
Sharma D, Singh A. E-learning in India during COVID-19: Challenges and opportunities. Eur J Mol Clin Med 2020;07:6199-206.
Khanna D, Prasad A. Problems Faced by Students and Teachers during Online Education Due to COVID-19 and How to Resolve Them. In: Proceedings – 2020 6th International Conference on Education and Technology, ICET 2020; 2020. p. 32-5. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9276625 [Last accessed on 2022 Apr 26].
Debnath M, Ojha S, Niraula A, Sharma D. Perceptions of medical and allied health students towards online education during the COVID-19 pandemic phases and its future impact in India. J Eur CME 2021;10:1993428.
Papali A, Ingram AO, Rosenberger AM, D'Arcy FR, Singh J, Ahlberg L, et al. Intubation checklist for COVID-19 patients: A practical tool for bedside practitioners. Respir Care 2021;66:138-43.
Indian Council of Medical Research. Guidelines. Technical Documents and Advisory. Available from: https://www.icmr.gov.in/ctechdocad. html. [Last accessed on 2021 May 15].