Indian Journal of Respiratory Care

IJRC Email      Register      Login

VOLUME 11 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Is Oxygen Humidification with Sterile Water Essential to Prevent Risk of Infection?

Rishi Dutt Avasthi, Gaurav Jain, Suresh K. Sharma

Citation Information : Avasthi RD, Jain G, Sharma SK. Is Oxygen Humidification with Sterile Water Essential to Prevent Risk of Infection?. Indian J Respir Care 2022; 11 (3):200-201.

DOI: 10.4103/ijrc.ijrc_101_22

License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; Indian Journal of Respiratory Care.


  1. Indian Council of Medical Research. Evidence Based Advisory in the Time of Covid-19. (Screening, Diagnosis & Management of Mucormycosis); May, 2021. Available from: [Last accessed on 2021 Jun 25].
  2. Health Ministry & Family Welfare Department COVID-19. Notification of Mucormycosis under Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 – Issued; May 20, 2021. Available from: [Last accessed on 2021 Jun 25].
  3. Minister Cities Possible Causes of Black Fungus. The Hindu. Karnataka; 2021 May 22, 18:33 IST. Available from: [Last accessed on 2021 Jun 26].
  4. Guidelines for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep 1997;46:1-79.
  5. Cahill CK, Heath J. Sterile water used for humidification in low-flow oxygen therapy: It is necessary? Am J Infect Control 1990;18:13-7.
  6. Gilmour IJ, Boyle MJ, Streifel A, McComb RC. The effects of circuit and humidifier type on contamination potential during mechanical ventilation: A laboratory study. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:65-72.
  7. Wenzel M, Klauke M, Gessenhardt F, Dellweg D, Haidl P, Schönhofer B, et al. Sterile water is unnecessary in a continuous positive airway pressure convection-type humidifier in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Chest 2005;128:2138-40.
  8. WHO-UNICEF Technical Specifications and Guidance for Oxygen Therapy Devices. Geneva: World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2019 (WHO Medical Device Technical Series). Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Available from: [Last accessed on 2021 Jun 26].
  9. Koss JA, Conine TA, Eitzen HE, LoSasso AM. Bacterial contamination potential of sterile, prefilled humidifiers and nebulizer reservoirs. Heart Lung 1979;8:1117-21.
  10. Richardson S, Hirsch JS, Narasimhan M, Crawford JM, McGinn T, Davidson KW, et al. Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area. JAMA 2020;323:2052-9.
  11. Wen Z, Wang W, Zhang H, Wu C, Ding J, Shen M. Is humidified better than non-humidified low-flow oxygen therapy? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Adv Nurs 2017;73:2522-33.
  12. Poiroux L, Piquilloud L, Seegers V, Le Roy C, Colonval K, Agasse C, et al. Effect on comfort of administering bubble-humidified or dry oxygen: The Oxyrea non-inferiority randomized study. Ann Intensive Care 2018;8:126.
  13. Gallagher J, Strangeways JE, Allt-Graham J. Contamination control in long-term ventilation. A clinical study using a heat- and moisture-exchanging filter. Anaesthesia 1987;42:476-81.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.