Intra-abdominal fat is a major determinant of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes 2004 Aug; 53(8):2087-2094.
The metabolic syndrome or the insulin resistance syndrome? Different names, different concepts, and different goals. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2004 Jun;33(2):283-303.
Insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, and pancreatic cancer in male smokers. JAMA 2005 Dec;294(22):2872-2878.
Pathogenesis of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol 2002 Sep;90(5A):11G-18G.
Inflammatory markers and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes 2004 Mar; 53(3):693-700.
Metabolic and inflammation variable clusters and prediction of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2004 Jul;53(7):1773-1781.
C-reactive protein and the risk of developing hypertension. JAMA 2003 Dec;290(22):2945-2951.
Should C-reactive protein be added to metabolic syndrome and to assessment of global cardiovascular risk? Circulation 2004 Jun;109(23):2818-2825.
Inflammation, obesity, and thrombosis. Blood 2013 Nov;122(20):3415-3422.
Macrophage inhibitory factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, other acute phase proteins, and inflammatory mediators normalize as a result of weight loss in morbidly obese subjects treated with gastric restrictive surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Aug;89(8):4062-4068.
Regulatory functions of the vascular endothelium. N Engl J Med 1990 Jul;323(1):27-36.
Endothelial dysfunction in obesity: etiological role in atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2007 Oct;14(5):365-369.
Endothelial function and dysfunction: testing and clinical relevance. Circulation 2007 Mar;115(10):1285-1295.
Atherosclerosis or lipoprotein-induced endothelial dysfunction: potential mechanism underlying reduction in ADRF/nitric oxide activity. Circulation 1992 May;85(5):1927-1938.
Paradoxical vasoconstriction induced by acetylcholine in atherosclerotic arteries. N Engl J Med 1986 Oct;315(17):1046-1051.
Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002 Jan;39(2):257-265.
Oxidative stress and cardiac microvascular structure in ischemia and reperfusion: the protective effect of antioxidant vitamins. Microvasc Res 2002 Sep;64(2):265-277.
Transfer of nitric oxide by blood from upstream to downstream resistance vessels causes microvascular dilation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2009 Oct;297(4):H1337-H1346.
Antioxidant effects of maslinic acid in livers, hearts and kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: effects on kidney function. Ren Fail 2014 Apr;36(3):419-431.
The role of plasma aminothiols in the prediction of coronary microvascular dysfunction and plaque vulnerability. Atherosclerosis 2011 Nov;219(1):266-272.
The relationship between plasma levels of oxidized and reduced thiols and early atherosclerosis in healthy adults. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006 Mar;47(5):1005-1011.
Endothelial function and aminothiol biomarkers of oxidative stress in healthy adults. Hypertension 2008 Jul;52(1):80-85.
Association between novel oxidative stress markers and C-reactive protein among adults without clinical coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis 2005 Jan;178(1):115-121.
The oxidized aminothiol cystine is associated with impaired arterial elasticity indices in healthy human subjects. Atherosclerosis 2011 Sept;218(1):90-95.
Novel features on nitric oxide, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and atherosclerosis. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2004 Jul;6(4):281-287.
Methods for evaluating endothelial function: a position statement from the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Peripheral Circulation. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2011 Dec;18(6):775-789.
Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine and L-arginine levels in Chinese patients with essential hypertension without coronary artery disease. J Cardiovasc Dis Res 2011 Jul-Sep;2(3):177-180.
From endothelial dysfunction to atherosclerosis. Autoimmun Rev 2010 Oct;9(12):830-834.
Carotid intima-media thickness in patients with cardiac syndrome X and its association with high circulating levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine. Atherosclerosis 2009 Jun;204(2):e82-e85.
Endothelium-dependent vasodilation, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in an elderly cohort: the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Atherosclerosis 2008 Feb;196(2):795-802.
Endothelial dysfunction in impaired fasting glycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol 2008 Aug;102(4):497-498.
Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Circulation 1993 Dec;88(6):2510-2516.
Insulin causes endothelial dysfunction in humans: sites and mechanisms. Circulation 2002 Feb;105(5):576-582.
Coronary endothelial dysfunction in the insulin-resistant state is linked to abnormal pteridine metabolism and vascular oxidative stress. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001 Dec;38(7):1821-1828.
Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in the metabolic syndrome. Curr Diab Rep 2003 Jul;3(4):289-292.
Advanced glycosylation products quench nitric oxide and mediate defective endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in experimental diabetes. J Clin Invest 1991 Feb;87(2):432-438.
Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes: the role of reparatory mechanisms. Diabetes Care 2011 May;34(Suppl 2): S285-S290.
Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2004 Apr;291(16):1978-1986.
Insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Circulation 2001 Jul;104(3):342-345.
Kinetics of insulin action in vivo: identification of rate-limiting steps. Diabetes 1995 Aug;44(8):947-953.
Role of tissue-specific blood flow and tissue recruitment in insulin-mediated glucose uptake of human skeletal muscle. Circulation 1998 Jul;98(3):234-241.
Endothelial dysfunction: cause of the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes 1997 Sep;46(Suppl 2):S9-S13.
Clinical correlates and heritability of flow-mediated dilation in the community: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2004 Jun;109(5):613-619.
Obesity is independently associated with coronary endothelial dysfunction in patients with normal or mildly diseased coronary arteries. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001 May;37(6):1523-1528.
C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction: a potential role for cytokines originating from adipose tissue? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999 Apr;19(4):972-978.
Adipose tissue, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. Circ Res 2005 May;96(9):939-949.
Association of hypoadiponectinemia with impaired vasoreactivity. Hypertension 2003 Sep;42(3):231-234.
Adiponectin and cardiovascular disease: response to therapeutic interventions. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007 Jan;49(5):531-538.
Cytosolic triglycerides and oxidative stress in central obesity: the missing link between excessive atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and beta-cell failure? Atherosclerosis 2000 Jan;148(1):17-21.
Mechanisms of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol effects on the endothelial function in hyperlipemia. Metabolism 2003 Sep;52(9):1191-1195.
Constantly low HDL-cholesterol concentration relates to endothelial dysfunction and increased in vivo LDL-oxidation in healthy young men. Atherosclerosis 1999 Nov;147(1):133-138.
Paraoxonase prevents accumulation of lipoperoxides in low-density lipoprotein. FEBS Letters 1991 Jul;286(1-2):152-154.
Protective effect of high density lipoprotein associated paraoxonase. Inhibition of the biological activity of minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein. J Clin Invest 1995 Dec;96(6):2882-2891.
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein decreases the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. J Biol Chem 1995 Jan;270(1):319-324.
Mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia in young men is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001 Jul;38(1):111-116.
Flow-mediated vasoactivity and circulating adhesion molecules in hypertriglyceridemia: association with small, dense LDL cholesterol particles. Am Heart J 2000 Sep;140(3):521-526.
Endothelium-dependent relaxation by acetylcholine is impaired in hypertriglyceridemic humans with normal levels of plasma LDL cholesterol. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999 Mar;33(3):805-812.
Preserved endothelial function in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia and low functional lipo-protein lipase activity. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997 Apr;29(5):964-968.
Hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy are associated with impaired endothelium-mediated relaxation in human coronary resistance vessels. Circulation 1993 Jan;87(1):86-93.
Abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in patients with essential hypertension. New Engl J Med 1990 Jul;323(1):22-27.
Role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation of patients with essential hypertension. Circulation 1993 May;87(5):1468-1474.
Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation by restoring nitric oxide activity in essential hypertension. Circulation 1998 Jun;97(22):2222-2229.
Endothelium-dependent contractions and endothelial dysfunction in human hypertension. Br J Pharmacol 2009 Jun;157(4):527-536.
Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 2005 Oct;112(17):2735-2752.
Foundations of care: education, nutrition, physical activity, smoking cessation, psychoscoial care, and immunization. Diabetes Care 2015 Jan;38(Suppl 1):S20-S30.
Prevention of diabetes with Mediterranean diets: a subgroup analysis of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2014 Jan;160(1):1-10.
Effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. JAMA 2004 Sep;292(12):1440-1446.
Mediterranean diet reduces endothelial damage and improves the regenerative capacity of endothelium. Am J Clin Nutr 2011 Feb;93(2):267-274.
Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007 Sep;39(8):1423-1434.
Regular aerobic exercise prevents and restores age-related declines in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in healthy men. Circulation 2000 Sep;102(12):1351-1357.
Regular physical exercise corrects endothelial dysfunction and improves exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation 1998 Dec;98(24):2709-2715.
Exercise-induced improvement in endothelial dysfunction is not mediated by changes in CV risk factors: pooled analysis of diverse patient populations. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2003 Dec;285(6):H2679-H2687.
Aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise as a treatment for the metabolic syndrome: a pilot study. Circulation 2008 Jul;118(4):346-354.
Cigarette smoking is associated with dose-related and potentially reversible impairment of endothelium-dependent dilation in healthy young adults. Circulation 1993 Nov;88(5 Pt 1):2149-2155.
Smoking and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and early atherogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2014 Mar;34(3):509-515.
Only two-week smoking cessation improves platelet aggregability and intraplatelet redox imbalance of long-term smokers. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005 Feb;45(4):589-594.
Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on endothelial function: 1-year outcomes from a randomized clinical trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010 May;55(18):1988-1995.
Metabolic effects of metformin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1995 Aug;333(9):550-554.
The effect of metformin and intensive life-style intervention on the metabolic syndrome: the Diabetes Prevention Program randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2005 Apr;142(8):611-619.
Metformin improves endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome. J Intern Med 2005 Sep;258(3):250-256.
Improved endothelial function with metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001 Apr;37(5):1344-1350.
Metformin. N Engl J Med 1996 Feb;334(9):574-579.
The effects of troglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing agent, on the endothelial function in early and late type 2 diabetes: a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Metabolism 2003 Feb;52(2):173-180.
In type 2 diabetes, rosiglitazone therapy for insulin resistance ameliorates endothelial dysfunction independent of glucose control. Diabetes Care 2004 Feb;27(2):484-490.
2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014 Jul;63(25 Pt B): 2889-2934.
Beneficial effects of cholesterol-lowering therapy on the coronary endothelium in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 1995 Feb;332(8):481-487.
Cholesterol reduction rapidly improves endothelial function after acute coronary syndromes: the RECIFE (reduction of cholesterol in ischemia and function of the endothelium) trial. Circulation 1999 Jun;99(25):3227-3233.
Short-term atorvastatin treatment improves endothelial function in hyper-cholesterolemic women. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2000 Nov;36(5):617-621.
Increased bioavailability of nitric oxide after lipid-lowering therapy in hypercholesterolemic patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Circulation 1998 Mar;98:211-216.
Effect of pravastatin on endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease (cholesterol-independent effect of pravastatin). Am J Cardiol 2001 Dec;88(11):1291-1294.
Fluvastatin reduces soluble P-selectin and ICAM-1 levels in hypercholesterolemic patients: role of nitric oxide. J Investig Med 2000 May;48(3):183-189.