Heart disease and stroke statistics—2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2015;131(4):e29-322.
At the heart of global development. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;64(4):416-417.
Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation 1998;97(18):1837-1847.
General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham heart study. Circulation 2008;117(6):743-753.
Simple scoring scheme for calculating the risk of acute coronary events based on the 10-year follow-up of the prospective cardiovascular munster (procam) study. Circulation 2002;105(3):310-315.
Prevention of cardiovascular disease guidelines for assessment and management of cardiovascular risk. Geneva: WHO. 2007. p. 86.
Estimation of 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the score project. Eur Heart J 2003;24(11):987-1003.
Predicting cardiovascular risk in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of qrisk2. BMJ 2008;336(7659): 1475-1482.
Derivation and validation of qrisk, a new cardiovascular disease risk score for the united kingdom: prospective open cohort study. BMJ 2007;335(7611):136.
Performance of the qrisk cardiovascular risk prediction algorithm in an independent uK sample of patients from general practice: a validation study. Heart 2008;94(1):34-39.
2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines. Circulation 2014;129(25 Suppl 2):S49-73.
Heart 2014;100 (Suppl 2):ii1–ii67.
34th bethesda conference: Executive summary--can atherosclerosis imaging techniques improve the detection of patients at risk for ischemic heart disease? J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41(11):1860-1862.
Prediction of clinical cardiovascular events with carotid intima-media thickness: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation 2007;115(4):459-467.
Coronary artery calcification compared with carotid intima-media thickness in the prediction of cardiovascular disease incidence: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (mesa). Arch Int Med 2008;168(12):1333-1339.
Imaging of atherosclerosis: Carotid intima–media thickness. Eur Heart J 2010;31(14):1682-1689.
Carotid intima-media thickening indicates a higher vascular risk across a wide age range: prospective data from the carotid atherosclerosis progression study (CAPS). Stroke 2006;37(1):87-92.
use of carotid ultrasound to identify subclinical vascular disease and evaluate cardiovascular disease risk: a consensus statement from the American society of echocardiography carotid intima-media thickness task force endorsed by the society for vascular medicine. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2008 Feb;21(2):93-111.
Prevalence and distribution of subclinical atherosclerosis by screening vascular ultrasound in low and intermediate risk adults: the New York physicians study. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2009 Oct;22(10):1145-1151.
Comprehensive assessment of vascular health in patients; towards endothelium-guided therapy. Pharmacol Reports 2015;67(4):786-792.
The clinical implications of endothelial dysfunction. J Am College Cardiol 2003;42(7):1149-1160.
ACCF/AHA 2007 clinical expert consensus document on coronary artery calcium scoring by computed tomography in global cardiovascular risk assessment and in evaluation of patients with chest pain: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation clinical expert consensus task force (ACCF/AHA writing committee to update the 2000 expert consensus document on electron beam computed tomography) developed in collaboration with the society of atherosclerosis imaging and prevention and the society of cardiovascular computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49(3):378-402.
Coronary artery calcium score combined with Framingham score for risk prediction in asymptomatic individuals. JAMA 2004;291(2):210-215.
Coronary calcium independently predicts incident premature coronary heart disease over measured cardiovascular risk factors: mean 3-year outcomes in the prospective army coronary calcium (PACC) project. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46(5):807-814.
Coronary calcification, coronary disease risk factors, c-reactive protein, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events: The st. Francis heart study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46(1):158-165.
Electron-beam tomography coronary artery calcium and cardiac events: a 37-month follow-up of 5635 initially asymptomatic low-to intermediate-risk adults. Circulation 2003;107(20):2571-2576.
Coronary calcification improves cardiovascular risk prediction in the elderly. Circulation 2005;112(4):572-577.
Coronary artery calcium score and coronary heart disease events in a large cohort of asymptomatic men and women. Am J Epidemiol 2005;162(5):421-429.
Coronary artery calcification compared with carotid intima-media thickness in the prediction of cardiovascular disease incidence: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). Arch Intern Med 2008;168(12):1333-1339.
Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005;365(9455):217-223.
Global burden and control of hypertension in 2010: Analysis of population-based studies from 89 countries. Circulation 2015;131(Suppl 1):A32.
Does it make sense to measure only the brachial blood pressure? Blood Purification 2013;36(1):21-25.
Central blood pressure: current evidence and clinical importance. Eur Heart J 2014; 35(26): 1719-1725.
Genetics and pathophysiology of arterial stiffness. Cardiovasc Res 2009;81(4):637-648.
Mechanisms, patho-physiology, and therapy of arterial stiffness. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005;25(5):932-943.
Structural basis for the static mechanical properties of the aortic media. Circ Res 1964; 14(5):400-413.
Age related changes in the tunica media of the vertebral artery: Implications for the assessment of vessels injured by trauma. J Clin Pathol 2001;54(2):139-145.
Role of glycation in aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1992;663:63-70.
Hypercholesterolemia superimposed by experimental hypertension induces differential distribution of collagen and elastin. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20(12):2566-2572.
Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products. J Biol Chem 2000;275(50):39027-39031.
Significance of the vascular renin-angiotensin pathway. Hypertension 1986;8(7):553-559.
A novel potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells. Nature 1988;332(6163):411-415.
Interactions of oxidant stress and vascular reactivity. Am J Physiol 1991;260(4 Pt 1):L207-211.
Insulin induces upregulation of vascular at1 receptor gene expression by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Circulation 1998;98(22):2453-2460.
Role of angiotensin II in altered expression of molecules responsible for coronary matrix remodeling in insulin-resistant diabetic rats. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003;23(11):2021-2026.
Pressure and flow waves in systemic arteries and the anatomical design of the arterial system. J Appl Physiol 1967;23(2):139-149.
Noninvasive pulse wave analysis for the early detection of vascular disease. Hypertens 1995;26(3):503-508.
Influence of arterial pulse and reflected waves on blood pressure and cardiac function. Am Heart J 1999;138(3 pt 2):S220-S224.
Pulse waves: how vascular hemodynamics affects blood pressure. Springer Science & Business Media; 2012.
McDonald's blood flow in arteries: theoretical, experimental and clinical principles. CRC Press; 2011.
Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications. Europ Heart J 2006;27(21): 2588-2605.
Estimation of central aortic blood pressure: A systematic meta-analysis of available techniques. J Hypertens 2014;32(9):1727-1740.
Arterial pressure waveforms in hypertension. Minerva Medica 2003;94(4):229-250.
Brachial vs. Central systolic pressure and pulse wave transmission indicators: a critical analysis. Am J Hypertens 2014;27(12):1433-1442.
2013 ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the task force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens 2013;31(7):1281-1357.
Association of estimated central blood pressure measured noninvasively with pulse wave velocity in patients with coronary artery disease. IJC Heart & Vasculature 2015;8:52-54.
[central pulse pressure but not brachial blood pressure is the predominant factor affecting aortic arterial stiffness]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2015;35(1):34-39.
An analysis of the relationship between central aortic and peripheral upper limb pressure waves in man. Eur Heart J 1993;14(2):160-167.
Is noninvasive brachial systolic blood pressure an accurate estimate of central aortic systolic blood pressure? Am J Hypertens 2015 Oct 5. pii: hpv164. [Epub ahead of print]
Prospective evaluation of a method for estimating ascending aortic pressure from the radial artery pressure waveform. Hypertens 2001;38(4): 932-937.
Estimation of central aortic pressure waveform by mathematical transformation of radial tonometry pressure validation of generalized transfer function. Circulation 1997;95(7):1827-1836.
Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with central haemodynamics: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 2010;31(15):1865-1871.
Aortic pulse wave velocity improves cardiovascular event prediction an individual participant meta-analysis of prospective observational data from 17,635 subjects. J Am College Cardiol 2014;63(7):636-646.
Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of primary coronary events in hypertensive patients: a longitudinal study. Hypertens 2002;39(1):10-15.
Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive patients. Hypertens 2001;37(5): 1236-1241.
Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics, and cardiovascular risk in hypertension. Vascular Health and Risk Management 2011;7: 725-739.
Aortic pulse-wave velocity and its relationship to mortality in diabetes and glucose intolerance: an integrated index of vascular function? Circulation 2002;106(16): 2085-2090.
Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: the rotterdam study. Circulation 2006;113(5):657-663.
Elevated aortic pulse wave velocity, a marker of arterial stiffness, predicts cardiovascular events in well-functioning older adults. Circulation 2005;111(25):3384-3390.
Impact of aortic stiffness on survival in end-stage renal disease. Circulation 1999;99(18):2434-2439.
Pulse wave velocity predicts cardiovascular mortality: findings from the hawaiilos angeles-hiroshima study. Circ J 2005;69(3):259-264.
Prognostic value of aortic pulse wave velocity as index of arterial stiffness in the general population. Circulation 2006;113(5):664-670.
Central pulse pressure and mortality in end-stage renal disease. Hypertens 2002;39(3):735-738.
Arterial wave reflections and survival in end-stage renal failure. Hypertens 2001;38(3):434-438.
Pulse pressure and aortic pulse wave are markers of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive populations. Am J Hypertens 2001;14(2): 91-97.
Increased arterial wave reflections predict severe cardiovascular events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Eur Heart J 2005;26(24):2657-2663.
Occurrence of increased arterial stiffness in a cohort of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus when compared to normoglycemic controls. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2015;9(1):138-144.
Effect of age and blood pressure on surrogate markers of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Diagnostic Res 2014;8(6):BC08-11.
Impact of mean arterial blood pressure on higher arterial stiffness indices in South Asians compared to white Europeans. J Hypertens 2008;26(7):1420-1426.
Relationship of arterial stiffness with hypertension and its management in a North-Indian population free of cardiovascular disease J Clin Prev Cardiol 2012;1(1):1-8.
Effect of tobacco use on arterial stiffness in community dwelling females. J Assoc Physicians India 2012;60:20-23.
Arterial stiffness in obese children: role of adiposity and physical activity. Ind J Endocrinol Metab 2014;18(1):70-76.
Obesity is a determinant of arterial stiffness independent of traditional risk factors in Asians with young-onset type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis 2014;236(2):286-291.
High body fat and low muscle mass are associated with increased arterial stiffness in Asian Indians in North India. J Diabetes Complications 2015;29(1):38-43.
Evaluation of risk of atherosclerosis in Indian adults. J Assoc Physicians India 2013;61(5):312-316.
Obesity and arterial stiffness in children: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biol 2015;35(4):1038-1044.
Carotid intima-media thickness and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in patients with and without coronary artery disease. Ind Heart J 2004;56(2):117-122.
Comparative diagnostic accuracy of different measures of preclinical atherosclerosis for detection of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. J Clin Prev Cardiol 2014;3(2):36-42.
Prevalence of peripheral vascular disease and its association with carotid intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes: the Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (CuRES 111). Diab Vasc Dis Res 2014;11(3): 190-200.
Arterial compliance increases after moderate-intensity cycling. Am J Physiol Heart and Circulatory Physiol 1997;273(5 Pt 2):H2186-H2191.
The effect of weight loss with or without exercise training on large artery compliance in healthy obese men. J Hypertens 1999;17(12 Pt 2):1831-1835.
Improved arterial distensibility in normotensive subjects on a low salt diet. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biol 1986;6(2):166-169.
Alcohol consumption in relation to aortic stiffness and aortic wave reflections: a cross-sectional study in healthy postmeno-pausal women. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biol 2004;24(2):342-348.
Fish oil improves arterial compliance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biol 1994;14(9):1425-1429.
Central pressure: variability and impact of cardiovascular risk factors the anglo-cardiff collaborative trial II. Hypertens 2008;51(6):1476-1482.
Central or peripheral systolic or pulse pressure: which best relates to target-organs and future mortality? J Hypertens 2009;27(3):461-467.
Association between local pulse pressure, mean blood pressure, and large-artery remodeling. Circulation 1999;100(13):1387-1393.
Relation of central and brachial blood pressure to left ventricular hypertrophy: The czech post-monica study. J Human Hypertens 2012;26(1): 14-19.
Relationsofcentralandbrachialbloodpressuretoleftventricular hypertrophy and geometry: the strong heart study. J Hypertens 2010;28(2):384-388.
Analysis of the effect of hemodialysis on peripheral and central arterial pressure waveforms. Kidney Int 2000;57(6):2634-2643.
Selective reduction of cardiac mass and central blood pressure on low-dose combination perindopril/indapamide in hypertensive subjects. J Hypertens 2004;22(8):1623-1630.
Local pulse pressure and regression of arterial wall hypertrophy during antihypertensive treatment. Celimene study. The celiprolol intima-media enalapril efficacy study. Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux 2000;93(8):911-915.
Local pulse pressure and regression of arterial wall hypertrophy during long-term antihypertensive treatment. Circulation 2000;101(22):2601-2606.
Differential impact of blood pressure–lowering drugs on central aortic pressure and clinical outcomes: principal results of the conduit artery function evaluation (CAFE) study. Circulation 2006;113(9):1213-1225.
Coordinators RP, Investigators. Improvement in blood pressure, arterial stiffness and wave reflections with a very-low-dose perindopril/indapamide combination in hypertensive patient a comparison with atenolol. Hypertens 2001;38(4): 922-926.
Effect of different antihypertensive drug classes on central aortic pressure. Am J Hypertens 2004;17(2):118-123.
Rationale, design, methods and baseline demography of participants of the anglo-scandinavian cardiac outcomes trial. J Hypertens 2001;19(6):1139-1147.
Blood-pressure reduction and cardiovascular risk in hope study. Lancet 2001;358(9299): 2130-2131.
Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: Results of the hope study and micro-hope substudy. Lancet 2000;355(9200):253-259.
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes in the losartan intervention for endpoint reduction in hypertension study (life): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002;359(9311):1004-1010.
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the losartan intervention for endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002;359(9311): 995-1003.
Reproducibility of pulse wave velocity and augmentation index measured by pulse wave analysis. J Hypertens 1998;16(12 Pt 2):2079-2084.
Repeatability of central and peripheral pulse wave velocity measures: the athero-sclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. Am J Hypertens 2015 Jul 31. pii: hpv 127. [Epub ahead of print].
Cost-effectiveness of noninvasive central blood pressure monitoring in the diagnosis of hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2015;28(5):604-614.
Pulse wave analysis and pulse wave velocity: a critical review of their strengths and weaknesses. J Hypertens 2003;21(3):463-472.
American heart association expert panel on subclinical atherosclerotic diseases and emerging risk factors and the stroke council. Criteria for evaluation of novel markers of cardiovascular risk: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2009;119(17):2408-2416.
Central aortic blood pressure and management of hypertension: confirmation of a paradigm shift? Hypertens 2013;62(6):1005-1007.
Impact of antihypertensive agents on central systolic blood pressure and augmentation index: a meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens 2015 Aug 19, pii: hpv 134. [Epub ahead of print].
Randomized trial of guiding hypertension management using central aortic blood pressure compared with best-practice care principal findings of the BP guide study. Hypertens 2013;62(6):1138-1145.
ACCF/AHA guideline for assessment of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines developed in collaboration with the American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society of Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of cardiovascular computed tomography, and society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Am College Cardiol 2010;56(25):e50–e103.
Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. J Hypertens 2012;30(3):445-448.