Citation Information :
Garrett WE, Moorman III CT, Grier AJ, Queen RM. Gender-specific Lower Extremity Kinematic Differences in Collegiate Soccer Athletes during Three Kicking Tasks. The Duke Orthop J 2018; 8 (1):55-60.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to characterize gender differences in lower extremity kinematics during three different soccer kicking tasks.
Materials and methods: Twelve male and 13 female collegiate soccer athletes participated in this study. Seven trials of three soccer kicking tasks were collected: Maximal instep kick, crossing kick, side-foot pass. The three-dimensional lower extremity joint angles at ball contact and at their peak during the swing phase were obtained during each task.
Results: Instep kick: Males had significantly greater peak knee adduction (p = 0.042), and less peak knee internal rotation (p = 0.046) and peak hip extension (p = 0.033). Side-foot pass: At ball contact, males exhibited significantly greater knee flexion (p = 0.025), knee adduction (p = 0.003), knee external rotation (p = 0.003), and hip internal rotation (p = 0.036). Males exhibited significantly less peak knee extension (p < 0.001), peak knee internal rotation (p < 0.001), and peak hip external rotation (p = 0.05). Crossing kick: Males exhibited greater peak knee flexion (p = 0.05) and peak knee external rotation (p = 0.023), and less peak knee adduction (p = 0.027) and peak knee abduction (p = 0.005).
Conclusion: More gender-specific kinematic differences in the execution of the kicking tasks examined here were observed during both the side-foot pass and crossing kick than during the instep kick. Further characterization of gender differences in kick performance will aid in the development and evaluation of performance enhancement training programs and potentially identify gender-specific injury mechanisms related to kicking mechanics.
Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Activity report. Zurich: FIFA; 2006. p. v.
Irick E. NCAA® Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report 1981-82 – 2010-11 2012-2013 November 12.
Shan G. Influence of gender and experience on the maximal instep soccer kick. Eur J Sport Sci 2009;9(2):107-114.
Lees A, Asai T, Andersen TB, Nunome H, Sterzing T. The biomechanics of kicking in soccer: a review. J Sports Sci 2010 Jun;28(8):805-817.
Kawamoto R, Miyagi O, Ohashi J, Fukashiro S. Kinetic comparison of a side-foot soccer kick between experienced and inexperienced players. Sports Biomech 2007 May;6(2): 187-198.
Lyle MA, Sigward SM, Tsai LC, Pollard CD, Powers CM. Influence of maturation on instep kick biomechanics in female soccer athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011 Oct;43(10): 1948-1954.
Anderson DI, Sidaway B. Coordination changes associated with practice of a soccer kick. Res Q Exerc Sport 1994 Jun; 65(2):93-99.
Brophy RH, Backus SI, Pansy BS, Lyman S, Williams RJ. Lower extremity muscle activation and alignment during the soccer instep and side-foot kicks. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007 May;37(5):260-268.
Phillips SJ. Invariance of elite kicking performance. Biomechanics IX-B 1985:539-542.
Levanon J, Dapena J. Comparison of the kinematics of the full-instep and pass kicks in soccer. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998 Jun;30(6):917-927.
Nunome H, Asai T, Ikegami Y, Sakurai S. Three-dimensional kinetic analysis of side-foot and instep soccer kicks. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002 Dec;34(12):2028-2036.
Brophy RH, Backus S, Kraszewski AP, Steele BC, Ma Y, Osei D, Williams RJ. Differences between sexes in lower extremity alignment and muscle activation during soccer kick. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2010 Sep 1;92(11):2050-2058.
Barfield WR, Kirkendall DT, Yu B. Kinematic instep kicking differences between elite female and male soccer players. J Sports Sci Med 2002 Sep 1;1(3):72-79.
Zeller BL, McCrory JL, Kibler WB, Uhl TL. Differences in kinematics and electromyographic activity between men and women during the single-legged squat. Am J Sports Med 2003 May-Jun;31(3):449-456.
Hewett TE, Ford KR, Myer GD, Wanstrath K, Scheper M. Gender differences in hip adduction motion and torque during a single-leg agility maneuver. J Orthop Res 2006 Mar; 24(3):416-421.
Silvestre R, West C, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJ. Body composition and physical performance in men's soccer: a study of a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I team. J Strength Cond Res 2006 Feb;20(1):177-183.
Smith R, Ford KR, Myer GD, Holleran A, Treadway E, Hewett TE. Biomechanical and performance differences between female soccer athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I and III. J Athl Train 2007 Oct-Dec; 42(4):470-476.
Wisloff U, Castagna C, Helgerud J, Jones R, Hoff J. Strong correlation of maximal squat strength with sprint performance and vertical jump height in elite soccer players. Br J Sports Med 2004 Jun;38(3):285-288.
Charnock BL, Lewis CL, Garrett WE Jr, Queen RM. Adductor longus mechanics during the maximal effort soccer kick. Sports Biomech 2009 Sep;8(3):223-234.
Alcock AM, Gilleard W, Hunter AB, Baker J, Brown N. Curve and instep kick kinematics in elite female footballers. J Sports Sci 2012;30(4):387-394.
Ishii H, Yanagiya T, Naito H, Katamoto S, Maruyama T. Numerical study of ball behavior in side-foot soccer kick based on impact dynamic theory. J Biomech 2009 Dec 11;42(16): 2712-2720.
Chappell JD, Yu B, Kirkendall DT, Garrett WE. A comparison of knee kinetics between male and female recreational athletes in stop-jump tasks. Am J Sports Med 2002 Mar- Apr;30(2):261-267.
Ferber R, Davis IM, Williams DS 3rd. Gender differences in lower extremity mechanics during running. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2003 May;18(4):350-357.
McLean SG, Lipfert SW, van den Bogert AJ. Effect of gender and defensive opponent on the biomechanics of sidestep cutting. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004 Jun;36(6):1008-1016.
Pollard CD, Davis IM, Hamill J. Influence of gender on hip and knee mechanics during a randomly cued cutting maneuver. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2004 Dec;19(10):1022-1031.
Katis A, Kellis E, Lees A. Age and gender differences in kinematics of powerful instep kicks in soccer. Sports Biomech 2015 Sep;14(3):287-299.
Smith T, Gilleard W. Three-dimensional analysis of a lofted instep kick by male and female footballers. Eur J Sport Sci 2016;16(1):57-64.
Sigward SM, Pollard CD, Havens KL, Powers CM. Influence of sex and maturation on knee mechanics during side-step cutting. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2012 Aug;44(8):1497-1503.
Sigward SM, Pollard CD, Powers CM. The influence of sex and maturation on landing biomechanics: implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2012 Aug;22(4):502-509.