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Cheiloscopy: A Deterministic Aid for Forensic Sex Determination
Rohit Malik, Sumit Goel
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:17-19]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1082 | FREE

Background: Cheiloscopy, the study of lip prints, is an upcoming tool for the identification of persons. The lip print of every person is unique and can be used to fix personal identity.
Aim: The prime objective of the present study was to ascertain whether the lip prints behold the potential for determination of sex of the individual from the configuration.
Methods: The lip prints were recorded by applying lipstick on the lips, then cellophane tape was applied on the lips and the prints were taken. These prints were studied and classified according to Tsuchihashi’s classification.
Results: No two lip prints matched with each other, thus establishing the uniqueness of lip prints. Type I and I’ were most common in females; type IV and V were seen most commonly in males. Around 48 females and 45 males were correctly recognized on the basis of their lip prints.
Conclusion: The present study is able to convey that lip prints behold the potential of determination of the sex.
Keywords: Cheiloscopy, Sex determination.

Role of Iron Deficiency in Oral Submucous Fibrosis: An Initiating or Accelerating Factor
KS Ganapathy, Shubha Gurudath, Bharati Balikai, Sushmini Ballal, D Sujatha
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:25-28]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1084 | FREE

To estimate the hemoglobin and serum iron levels in patients diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis and to compare the values with that of the healthy subjects and with patients diagnosed of iron deficiency anemia
Patients reporting to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, The Oxford Dental College, Hospital and Research Center, Bengaluru, who were clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis, were subjected for estimation of hemoglobin and serum iron levels by using Sahli’s method and Ferrene method respectively.
Hemoglobin and serum iron levels were low in patients with oral submucous fibrosis when compared with healthy control and a significant reduction in serum iron levels were found in comparison with anemic patients.
Keywords: Oral submucous fibrosis, Hemoglobin, Serum iron, Iron deficiency anemia.

Association of Candida in Different Stages of Oral Leukoplakia
A Dany, Khalil Kurian, S Shanmugam
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:14-16]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1081 | FREE

Context: Leukoplakia represents the most common premalignant oral mucosal lesion. Candida albicans is frequently found in histologic sections of leukoplakia. Some Candida strains may have the potential to promote the development of oral cancer.
Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Candida infection in different stages of leukoplakia and in different grades of dysplasia through cytological methods.
Materials and methods: Thirty subjects with the diagnosis of leukoplakia were taken for the study. Another thirty subjects, who were age and sex matched with that of experimental subjects, were selected as control subjects. Based on the clinical examination and histopathological examination, required data were collected.
Statistical analysis used: Mean, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test were used for statistical analysis.
Results: Of the 30 subjects with leukoplakia, 11 (37%) subjects were positive for Candida in the lesion and 19 (63%) subjects had no Candida in the lesion. Among the experimental subjects, 2 (14%) subjects with stage 1 lesion, 3 (43%) subjects with stage 2 lesion and 6 (67%) subjects with stage 4 lesion showed evidence of Candida. Of the 11 subjects who showed evidence of Candida, 2 (18%) subjects had Candida with no dysplasia, 3 (27%) subjects had Candida with mild dysplasia and 6 (55%) subjects had Candida with moderate dysplasia. Of the 19 subjects who have not shown evidence of Candida, 10 (53%) subjects were with no dysplasia, 6 (32%) subjects were with mild dysplasia and 3 (15%) subjects were with moderate dysplasia.
Conclusions: Based on the present study, it could be concluded that as the stage of the lesion increases, the presence of Candida in the lesion also increases. In addition to this, we were able to show that the presence of Candida was more common in lesions with moderate dysplasia than in lesions with mild dysplasia or no dysplasia.
Keywords: Leukoplakia, Presence of Candida, Grades of dysplasia, Leukoplakia stages.

Correlation of Radiographic and Chronological Age in Human by using Demirjian’s Method: A Radiographic Study
Ashish M Warhekar, Panjab V Wanjari, Tushar Phulambrikar
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:1-4]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1078 | FREE

The age of the individual can be assessed as skeletal age, morphological age, secondary sex character age and dental age and these may be applied singly or in conjunction to assess the degree of physical maturity of a child. The determination of physiological age is based on the various degree of maturation of the different tissue systems. Dental age is one of the important factor taken into account when formulating treatment plans and having particular relevance to the timing of treatment.
Aim: The study was designed to determine dental age from orthopantomograph using Demirjian method and to investigate applicability of Demirjian method for estimation of chronological age in Central Indian (Indore, Madhya Pradesh) population.
Materials and methods: The sample for the study consisted of 210 individuals between 72-156 months (6-13 years) of age randomly selected from various schools. Panoramic radiographs of all individuals were studied and dental age was calculated by using Demirjian’s method.
Results and conclusion: When Demirjian method was applied to Indore children, mean difference between true and assessed age for males showed overestimation of 1.34 months, i.e. overestimation by 40 days and females showed overestimation of 1.97 months, i.e. overestimation by 59 days. The mean difference between true age and assessed age for total sample was 1.66 months, i.e. overestimation by 49 days. Positive correlation showed in total male and female sample along with male and female combined sample.
Age estimation using Demirjian’s method was found to be accurate when applied to Central Indian (Indore, Madhya Pradesh) population.
Keywords: Dental age, Chronological age, Demirjian method.

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Therapy in Temporomandibular Disorder: A Clinical Study
Ganapathi Moger, MC Shashikanth, Sunil MK, Shambulingappa P
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:46-50]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1090 | FREE

Aims: Though use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry was first described in 1967 by Shane and Kessler, it has yet to gain widespread acceptance in dentistry. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of active and placebo TENS therapies in the treatment of temporomandibular disorder.
Methods: Thirty patients received active TENS therapy and 15 received placebo TENS therapy. VAS was used to measure changes in pain and tenderness in the muscles of mastication and TMJs during and after therapy. Also, changes in mouth opening was recorded and analyzed.
Results: A significant improvement was observed in both active and placebo TENS therapies regarding orofacial pain, muscles and TMJs tenderness and interincisal distance. None of the parameters except medial pterygoid muscle tenderness revealed any differences between the methods.
Conclusion: This study justifies the use of TENS therapy as well as placebo in the management of TMD. TENS therapy appears to be useful in relieving pain, especially muscular and chronic pain. Hence, along with TENS therapy, placebo should also be considered as a potent and independent therapeutic modality in its own right.
Keywords: TMD, Active TENS therapy, Placebo TENS, TMJ, Controlled clinical trial.

Evaluation of Mandibular Anterior Nutrient Canals in Periodontal Diseases: A Prospective Case Control Radiographic Study
Govind Singh, Kamala Rawson, Shivakumar, Amitabh Srivastava, Siva Balakrishnan, Abhishek Sinha
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:5-8]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1079 | FREE

Aim: To evaluate radiographically, the presence or absence of nutrient canals in controls and patients with periodontal diseases, and to correlate the number of nutrient canals with severity of bone loss.
Materials and methods: A total number of 1,000 patients were enrolled, in that 500 patients were of study group and 500 of control group, in both the group, intraoral periapical radiographs were taken in relation to mandibular anterior region by paralleling technique.
Results: Nutrient canals were observed in 7% of the control group and 61% of periodontitis patients. Nutrient canals were seen more in advanced age group in chronic periodontitis with bone loss of more than 2/3rd of root length.
Conclusions: The prevalence of nutrient canals was higher in patients with periodontitis. As age advanced, prevalence was more. Increased frequency of nutrient canals of 3 or more than 3 was seen with increased severity of bone loss.
Keywords: Nutrient canal, Periodontitis, Bone loss, Paralleling technique.

Quid-Induced Lichenoid Reactions: A Prevalence Study
Vishal Dang, Madhav Nagpal
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:39-41]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1088 | FREE

White lesions of the oral mucosa are of concern to the dental surgeon in view of the fact that some of these may be potentially malignant. Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) share similar clinical appearances but need to be carefully distinguished because of their different etiologies and clinical behaviour. This study screened 5,017 population, in a house-to-house field survey, for tobacco use and investigated the prevalence of oral lichenoid reactions in the 98 quid users. Six subjects with clinical/clinical and histopathological criteria compatible with the diagnosis of OLR were identified. All these subjects were users of ‘Gutka’, a unique chewable variant of tobacco quid containing areca nut and catechu. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between quid habit and lesion occurrence (p < 0.005).
Keywords: Oral lichen planus, Oral lichenoid reaction, Quid, Gutka, Khaini, Catechu (Kattha).

Efficacy of Benzydamine Hydrochloride, Chlorhexidine and Povidone Iodine in Treatment of Oral Mucositis among Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Malignancies
G Roopashri, K Jayanthi, R Guruprasad
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:20-24]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1083 | FREE

Background and objectives: Oral mucositis is a common and debilitating complication of radiotherapy which is associated with significant morbidity. It is therefore extremely important that mucositis be prevented, or at least treated to reduce its severity and sequelae. The objective of the study was to manage oral mucositis induced by radiotherapy and to reduce pain by using Benzydamine hydrochloride (0.15%), Chlorhexidine (0.2%) and Povidone iodine (5%).
Results: Benzydamine hydrochloride is effective and delays the development of severe form of mucositis and appears more efficient in the management of radiation-induced mucositis.
Conclusions: Benzydamine hydrochloride (0.15%) is safe, well-tolerated, helps not just in delaying the progression of mucositis but also reduces the intensity of pain.
Keywords: Oral mucositis, Benzydamine hydrochloride, Chlorhexidine, Povidone iodine.

Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome: In Siblings with Palmer-Plantar Pigmentation
Suresh KV, Prashanth Shenai, Laxmikanth Chatra
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:68-72]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1096 | FREE

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by typical pigmented perioral macules, pigmented spots in the oral mucosa and digits along with hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract. The pigmented macules usually appear during infancy or early childhood and have a tendency to increase in size during adolescence. The characteristic clinical course includes recurrent episodes of polyp-induced bowel obstruction, abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding. In addition to polyposis, the risk of gastrointestinal and extragastrointestinal malignancies is significantly higher in patients with PJS.
We report two unique cases of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in sibling with intestinal polyposis and mucocutaneous pigmentation with a definite family history. An overview on differential diagnosis and therapeutic aspects of the disease has been discussed.
Keywords: Hamartomatous polyps, Perioral macules, Mucocutaneous pigmentations, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

Sexual Dimorphism in Human Mandibular Canine Teeth: A Radiomorphometric Study
KS Nagesh, Asha R Iyengar, Rishabh Kapila, Sushma Mehkri
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:33-35]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1086 | FREE

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether the variation in the mesiodistal measurement of mandibular canine played a role in sex determination.
Materials and methods: The study comprised of patients in the age group of 19 to 24 years (20 males and 20 females). Mesiodistal measurement of mandibular canines was measured at the maximum mesiodistal width, first intraorally, then on plaster models of the same patient followed by intraoral periapical radiograph of the same patient.
Results: From the findings of the study, it may be inferred that there exists a definite statistically significant difference in the mesiodistal width of mandibular canines when measured for males and females. Moreover, the left mandibular canine showed a greater sexual dimorphism (9.7%) when compared to the right mandibular canine (7.4%).
Conclusion: The present study establishes a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines. It can be concluded that the standard mandibular canine index is a quick and easy method for sex determination.
Keywords: Mandibular canine width, Mandibular canine index, Sex determination.

Russell-Silver Syndrome: A Case Report with Review of Literature
Sreedevi, Sunil Chaudhary, PG Agnihotri, Praveen B Reddy, NB Nagaveni
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:73-75]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1097 | FREE

Russell-Silver syndrome is a disorder present at birth characterized by low birth weight, poor postnatal growth, craniofacial disproportion, clinodactyly, normal intelligence, downward curvature of the corner of the mouth, syndactyly, cafe-au-lait spots, cryptorchidism, etc. Episodes of hypoglycemia is an important feature in the diagnosis of RSS. Diagnosis of RSS remains clinical as no definite etiology or specific test has been established. It appears to be sporadic in most instances and has been noted to occur in all racial groups. We report to you one such case of an 11-year-old boy who presented with most of the features mentioned above. Early diagnosis of such cases is essential to overcome the psychological trauma to the patient.
Keywords: Intrauterine growth retardation, Short stature, Cryptorchidism, Russell-Silver syndrome.

Age Estimation of Adolescents and Young Adults based on Development of Mandibular Third Molars: A Panoramic Study
Pradhuman Verma, Jatindra Sachdeo, Kanika Gupta Verma, Som Datt Gupta, R Guruprasad
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:9-13]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1080 | FREE

The present study was carried out to estimate the age of adolescent and young adults based on Demirjian et al classification for the development of mandibular third molars using panoramic radiographs to compare dental age with chronological age and its evaluation for medicolegal purposes.
The study consisted of 220 subjects with age ranging from 14 to 24 years, equally divided in 11 groups (n = 20, males and females). Panoramic radiographs were taken and graded for right and left mandibular third molars by using Demirjian et al eight staged system (A to H and O for missing tooth), and data was analyzed using SPSS 13.00 package for Windows XP.
Results indicated that males show early development of mandibular third molars as compared to females showing sexual dimorphism. The earlier stages in teeth development (D, E and F) indicates that the person is younger than 18 years, falling under juvenile legislation; stages G and H indicates that the person has reached 18 or more and considered as an adult in Indian law.
The described data may provide references for district Sangrur of Punjab population for the purpose of forensic investigation but further studies are required to substantiate its usefulness.
Keywords: Demirjian classification, Panoramic radiographs, Mandibular third molars, Forensic science.

A Study on Alterations in Plasma Lipid Profile Patterns in OSMF Patients
Altaf Hussain Chalkoo, Sanjeet Singh Risam, Riyaz Farooq
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:36-38]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1087 | FREE

Background: Lipids play a key role in maintenance of cell integrity. These are major cell membrane components essential for various biological functions, including cell growth and division of normal and malignant tissues. Changes in lipid profile have long been associated with malignancies.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the alterations in lipid profile in untreated patients of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF).
Materials and methods: In this hospital-based study, 20 clinically diagnosed patients of OSMF between the age group of 20 and 50 years male patients were studied. In these samples, serum lipids including: (i) serum cholesterol, (ii) LDL cholesterol (LDLC), (iii) HDL cholesterol (HDLC), (iv) VLDL cholesterol (VLDLC), (v) serum triglycerides, (vi) HDLC/ LDLC ratio and (viii) serum cholesterol/ HDLC ratio were analyzed.
Results: Serum cholesterol and LDLC showed a significant decrease whereas serum triglycerides and HDLC were slightly increased in some patients with OSMF. Thus, study strengthens the evidence of alterations in plasma lipid levels in OSMF patients.
Conclusion: The findings strongly warrant a large sample size and an in-depth study of alterations in plasma lipid profile in OSMF patients as well as other oral precancerous conditions.
Keywords: Oral submucous fibrosis, Serum cholesterol, Serum triglycerides.

Dentofacial Anomalies and Oral Hygiene Status in Mentally Challenged Children: A Survey
Rani Somani, MK Sunil, Shipra Jaidka, Jaskirat Khaira
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:51-53]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1091 | FREE

Mentally compromised patients are found to be associated with various dentofacial anomalies. These patients have physical, mental, sensory, behavioral, cognitive, emotional and chronic medical conditions, which require health care beyond considered routine. Adequate oral cleaning in them is a task because of impaired musculature. Thus, these children are prone to various oral diseases and dentofacial anomalies that require early diagnosis and treatment.
This study is carried out to know the oral hygiene status and dentofacial anomalies in mentally compromised patients with an idea of helping them to have a better oral hygiene status and treat the developed dentofacial changes on time.
Keywords: Dentofacial anomalies, Oral hygiene status, Down’s syndrome, Cerebral palsy.

Sjogren’s Syndrome: A Review
Rani Somani, MK Sunil, Jaskirat Khaira, Dilip Kumar
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:61-64]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1094 | FREE

Sjogren’s syndrome, also known as "Mikulicz disease" or "Sicca syndrome", is a systemic autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack and destroy the exocrine glands that produce tears and saliva. It can exist by itself (primary Sjogren syndrome) or develop in association with another disorder, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, primary biliary cirrhosis or Hashimoto thyroiditis (associated Sjogren syndrome). Hallmarks are the dry mouth and dry eyes known as the Sicca syndrome. Sjogren syndrome affects 1 million to 4 million people in the United States. Most are over 40 years old at the time of diagnosis. As there is no known cure for Sjogren syndrome, treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and preventing complications. The most serious complication associated with primary Sjogren’s syndrome is the development of a lymphoproliferative disease, primarily non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Keywords: Sjogren’s syndrome, Classification, Diagnosis, Treatment.

Tuberculous Granuloma
TN Uma Maheswari, N Gnanasundaram
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:65-67]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1095 | FREE

Tuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There are two forms namely primary and secondary tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common form of primary tuberculosis. Primary tuberculosis in extrapulmonary site, though very uncommon, can occur in any site, such as skin, brain, bone, eye, genitourinary tract and oral cavity.
A 50-year-old male reported with complaint of swelling in the left maxillary region for 3 months duration. Intraorally diffuse firm swelling in the buccal mucosa with mild tenderness, free of secondary changes was present. Histhopathological report revealed Langhans’ giant cell suggestive of tuberculous granuloma. This article emphasis the fact that primary oral tuberculosis should be considered as differential diagnosis of soft tissue swellings, as the communicable nature of the disease demands early diagnosis and treatment.
Keywords: Granuloma, Tuberculoma, Oral tuberculosis.

Primary Oral Malignant Melanoma
Panjab V Wanjari, Ashish M Warhekar, Sangeeta P Wanjari, Vanaja Reddy Satyajitraje Tekade, Pallavi Shrivastava
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:76-79]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1098 | FREE

Malignant melanoma (MM) is a malignant neoplasm of epidermal melanocytes. Primary malignant melanoma (PMM) is rarely found in the oral cavity. It is estimated at between 0.2 and 8% of all melanomas and approximately four times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate and anterior gingiva. It is more prevalent in the older population having 50 to 80 years of age. Males are more commonly affected than females. Some rare cases of involvement of lip, mandibular gingiva and buccal mucosa were also reported previously. Here, we are reporting a rare case of MM in the oral cavity of 60-year-old male patient involving mandibular gingiva.
Keywords: Malignant melanoma, Oral malignant melanoma, Gingiva.

Significance of Clinical Signs in Diagnosing Each Variant of Periapical Pathology: A Random Population Study in 1000 Patients
Rakesh Kumar Manne, Ramesh Amirisetty, Khalil Kurian
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:54-56]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1092 | FREE

Objectives: To find out the accurate prevalence of periapical pathology and to see the significance of the clinical signs in diagnosing each variant of periapical pathology.
Methods: A study of 1000 patients chosen consecutively, who visited the department of oral radiology, for intraoral periapical radiographs. The clinical data of all the variants of periapical pathology were registered in a specific clinical form followed by intraoral periapical radiographs of the same site. All the data were entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed using Chi-square test setting a value of p < 0.05 for the prevalence and distribution of periapical pathology and Z-test setting a value of p < 0.05 to see the significance of the clinical signs in diagnosing each variant of periapical pathology.
Results: A total of 584 radiographs were diagnosed with periapical pathology. Periapical rarefying osteitis was present in almost every second radiograph (41.27%) and the less common were periapical cysts and infected periapical cysts (6.3% each). No sex predilection in distribution of periapical pathology (p = 0.415) and the majority of the patients (36.30%) belonged to 25 to 36 years age group (p = 0.000). Mandibular molars (51.2%) were the most common and mandibular canines (0.51%) were the least common sites to involve with periapical pathology (p = 0.000). Overall significance of the clinical signs in diagnosing each variant of periapical pathology was observed (p = 0.000).
Conclusion: Our results suggested high prevalence rate of periapical pathology. This study also elaborated all the clinical signs of periapical pathology and their statistical significance in diagnosing each variant of periapical pathology.
Keywords: Erythema, Periapical cyst, Pulp test, Radiograph.

Dental Perspective: Recognition and Response to Child Abuse and Neglect in Indian Setting
Shalu Rai, Mandeep Kaur, Sandeep Kaur
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:57-60]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1093 | FREE

Child abuse is prevalent in every segment of society and is witnessed in all social, religious and professional strata. India has taken large strides in addressing issues, such as child education, health and development. However, in a country with a child population of around 440 million, child abuse and protection has remained largely unaddressed. Since most of the physical abuse injuries occur in orofacial region, dentists can easily diagnose them. While oral care professionals may often recognize clinical symptoms suggesting child abuse, they may not always know their legal or ethical obligations to report their findings or suspicions.
The intent of the article is to help dental care professionals more accurately identify and report child abuse and neglect with respect to the Indian scenario.
Keywords: Child abuse, Child neglect, Physical abuse, Dentist, India.

A Comparative Study of Salivary Composition of HIV Seropositive Patients on HAART and Not on HAART
Navdeep Johar, Gordon B Proctor, Rajesh Kumar
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:29-32]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1085 | FREE

Aims: In the present study, the flow rate and few specific components of saliva from HIV positive patients on HAART and not on HAART therapy has been examined.
Setting and design: This study was conducted on the HIV +ve patients attending the specialty clinics of the Oral Medicine Clinics at Guy’s and King’s College Hospital, London, in 2004.
Materials and methods: Two group of patients (nine HIV +ve patients on HAART and nine not on HAART) were selected by random sampling. From each patient, whole mouth unstimulated saliva and stimulated parotid saliva was collected. Markers used were: (1) Salivary flow rate indicator of acinar cell fluid secretion, (2) lactoferrin-indicator of salivary gland inflammation and innate immunity, (3) immunoglobulin A indicator of mucosal immunity and (4) total protein-indicator of overall salivary protein secretion. Total salivary protein contraction was assayed by measuring absorbance at 215 nm by a spectrophotometer (Ultrospec 4050) and salivary IgA concentration by ELISA.
Statistical analysis used: Student’s unpaired t-test and Mann-Whitney parametric test. P-values < 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.
Results: No significant difference was observed between the two groups. Mean IgA of the HAART group patients was found to be nonsignificantly higher.
Conclusions: This preliminary study suggests that HAART does not significantly alter the composition of saliva. Further, larger studies are required to study the effect of HAART on salivary gland function.
Keywords: HAART, Xerostomia, HIV.

Photographing of a Radiograph: A Simple Alternative
Matrishva B Vyas, Navin V Hantodkar
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:80]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1099 | FREE

Photograph of a radiograph is customarily shot using "X-ray viewer" as a background. However, it has its own disadvantages in quality reproduction of image details. Method to use laptop screen as an alternative background for shooting photograph of a radiograph, is presented.
Keywords: Photograph, Radiograph, X-ray viewer.

Quantitative Estimation of Yeast on Maxillary Denture in Patients with Denture Stomatitis and the Effect of Chlorhexidine Gluconate in Reduction of Yeast
Jaykumar R Gade, Vandana Gade
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:42-45]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1089 | FREE

Denture stomatitis is a condition associated with wearing of a denture. The predisposing factor leading to denture stomatitis could be poor oral hygiene, ill-fitting denture and relief areas. Around 30 patients with denture stomatitis were advised to rinse with chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash for 14 days and were directed to immerse the upper denture in the chlorhexidine solution for 8 hours. The samples were collected by scraping maxillary denture in saline at three intervals, prior to, at the end of 24 hours and after 14 days of treatment, then were inoculated and quantitative estimation of the yeast growth on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate was done. It was observed that after a period of 14 days, there was a reduction in the growth of yeast and also improvement in the clinical picture of the oral mucosa.
Keywords: Denture stomatitis, Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, Candida albicans.

23.  Guest Editorial
With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility
Freny R Karjodkar
[Year:2011] [Month:January-March] [Volume:23 ] [Number:1] [Pages:80] [Pages No:v-vii]
Full Text PDF | FREE


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