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Unicystic Jaw Lesions: A Radiographic Guideline
Giju George, Sheeba Padiyath
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S31-36]
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The unilocular radiolucencies remain the topic of much interest for the clinicians and histhopathologists for decades. Adequate use of diagnostic aids and careful observation will clinically help the dentist to arrive at a proper diagnosis and renders quality treatment to patients. Despite of the development of various cross-sectional imaging modalities, the radiograph still remains as the first and most important investigation. Jaw bone lesions, especially unilocular ones, are difficult to diagnose radiologically because of their similar radiographic appearance. It is, thus, very important for the clinician to have a sound knowledge of various radiographic features of the tooth and its supporting structures.
Keywords: Unilocular radiolucency, Radiograph, Corticated margin, Diagnosis.

Psammomatoid Juvenile Ossifying Fibroma: A Case Report with Literature Review
Preeti Nair, Anil Kumar, Karthik Hegde, Shiba Neelakantan
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S53-57]
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Psammomatoid Juvenile Ossifying Fibroma (PJOF) is an uncommon neoplasm that is distinguished from the adult variant of ossifying fibromas on the basis of age, site, clinical behavior and microscopic appearance. It is seen in children younger than 15 years of age, and the maxilla is more commonly involved than the mandible. PJOF may exhibit erosion and invasion of the surrounding bone accompanied by rapid enlargement. PJOF can be distinguished from other maxillofacial fibro-osseous lesions by its tendency to recur and its clinical mimicry of malignant bone tumors, but some clinical and histological features of PJOF overlap with the other fibro-osseous lesions as well. We report a case of a 15-year-old female patient with a painless apparently slow growing tumor in the left malar region, which occupied almost the whole of the left maxillary sinus, eroding the orbital border of the sinus.
Keywords: Psammomatoid, Juvenile ossifying fibroma, Psammoma bodies.

Evolution, Epidemiology and Etiology of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
Sujata M Byahatti
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S13-18]
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The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is unique to mammals, but among different mammalian groups, its morphology and function vary enormously. It is likely that various species show less loading of jaw joints during chewing than humans do. It took approximately 130 million years for the evolutionary process to stabilize this composite, basic vertebrate head skeleton to the jaws. Very little documentations are noted on anthropology of TMJ. When it is concerned with epidemiology, temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) have a number of consistent findings and various causative factors that can contribute to TMDs. The aim of the following article is to provide detailed information regarding its evolution, epidemiology and various causative factors leading to TMDs.
Key Messages: The masticatory system is extremely complex.
Keywords: Temporomandibular joint, TMDs, Epidemiology, Biomechanics, Animal, Mastication.

Clinical and CT Scan Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joints with Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Abhijeet Deoghare, Shirish S Degwekar
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S1-5]
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Temporomandibular joint disorders refer to a complex and poorly understood set of conditions, manifested by pain in the area of jaw and associated muscles, and limitations in the ability to make normal movements like mastication, speech and swallowing. Arthritis as it affects other joints also affects temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The present study was undertaken to study the clinical aspects of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis of TMJ supplemented by CT scan of joints to study the radiological changes and to find out if there was any correlation between them.
Keywords: Temporomandibular joint arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis.

Angina Bullosa Hemorrhagica with a Possible Relation to Dental Treatment, Diabetes Mellitus, Steroid Inhaler and Local Trauma: Report of 3 Cases
Ravi Prakash SM, Om Prakash D Toshniwal, Narendra Nath Singh, Sankalp Verma
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S42-44]
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Angina bullosa hemorrhagica is a rare condition characterized by one or more blood filled blisters or bullae predominantly in the soft palate region caused either by local mucosal trauma, dental treatment, underlying systemic conditions or use of steroid inhalers. We report three cases of angina bullosa hemorrhagica with different etiological factors.
Keywords: Angina bullosa hemorrhagica, Dental treatment, Diabetes mellitus, Steroid inhaler, Local trauma.

Oral Manifestations of Eating Disorders
Neeta Misra, Anshul Mehra, Pradyuman Misra, Jaya Mehra
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S19-22]
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Eating disorders are potentially life-threatening disorders. In this article, we discuss the oral manifestations of eating disorders so as to enable dental practitioners to recognize the effects of eating disorders and to manage the patients with eating disorders.
Keywords: Anorexia nervosa, Bulimia nervosa, oral manifestations.

Lipoma in the Palate: A Rare Presentation
A Winnifred Christy, Anitha Bojan, Babu Mathew, S Shanmugam MDS
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S51-52]
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Lipoma is the benign tumor of adipose tissue. It constitutes about 1 to 2% of all benign neoplasms of the oral cavity. Intraorally, it occurs predominantly in the buccal mucosa followed by tongue, floor of the mouth, buccal vestibule and rarely in the palate and gingiva.
A 72-year-old lady reported with a swelling in the hard plate for the past three years. Clinically the swelling was pale pink in color and had a broad peduncle. The swelling was soft to firm in consistency and mobile. A provisional diagnosis of a benign minor salivary gland neoplasm was made. The tumor was excised and histopathological examination showed it to be a fibrolipoma.
Lipoma occurring in the palate is rare with only six cases reported in the literature so far. This case of oral lipoma occurring in the hard plate is reported for its rarity and can be considered as a rare possibility in the differential diagnosis of various swellings of the palate.
Keywords: Lipoma, Fibrolipoma, Hard palate.

Comparison of Cephalometric Measurements Obtained with Conventional and Digital Methods and their Reproducibility
Anshu Kalra, Shirish Goel, Manish Thadani, RM Shetty, Divya Kalra, Savita Lodam
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S9-12]
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Aims and objectives: The purpose of the study was to compare the intraobserver reproducibility of cephalometric measurements obtained with digital cephalograms traced with software and equivalent hand-traced conventional cephalograms. Further, the cephalometric measurements obtained with both methods were compared to know any significant differences.
Materials and methods: The sample consisted of pretreatment digital and conventional cephalograms of 40 patients (20 males and 20 females). Eleven cephalometric landmarks were identified and 10 measurements calculated by one operator, both manually and with digital tracing software. Intraobserver reliability was assessed for both methods by duplicating the tracings at two weeks interval and using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Further paired “t” test was used to compare the conventional and digital methods.
Results: The analysis of error (correlation coefficient) on both methods showed a high correlation of repeated measures. Results indicate that the reliability of repeated measurements appears to be slightly better with conventional radiographs. In the comparison between two methods, statistically significant differences (p < 0.005) were detected for 5 of the 10 measurements evaluated (Wits, Sn-GoGn, PP-GoGn, U1-L1, L1-GoGn). However, three of these statistically significant results were highly significant (p < 0.001) of Wits, U1-L1, L1-GoGn.
Conclusion: Intraobserver reproducibility was found to be better with conventional cephalometric tracings than with monitor displayed digital image tracings. The differences, however, were clinically insignificant. Therefore, computerized cephalometric measurement using direct digital imaging is inherently preferable for its user-friendly and time saving characteristics.
Keywords: Digital cephalogram, Conventional cephelogram, Intraobserver reliability, Cephalometric tracings.

Unusual Presentation of Pyogenic Granuloma of Buccal Mucosa
SC Selvamuthukumar, Nalini Ashwath, V Anand
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S45-47]
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Exophytic growth of the oral cavity often presents a diagnostic challenge because a diverse group of pathologic processes can produce such lesions. Among the exophytic growth of oral cavity inflammatory hyperplasia stands the most common etiology. The pyogenic granuloma is the most common type of inflammatory hyperplasia found in the oral cavity especially in gingiva. Extragingival occurrence of pyogenic granuloma is usually rare.
Hence, we report such a rare presentation of pyogenic granuloma on buccal mucosa in a 35-years-old male.
Keywords: Granuloma pyogenicum, Hyperplasia, Lobular capillary hemangioma, Pyogenic granuloma.

Cleidocranial Dysplasia: Report of Two Cases
Avinash Kshar, HR Umarji
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S69-72]
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Cleidocranial dysplasia constitutes a congenital disorder manifested primarily in the development of facial and cranial bones, as well as partial development or complete absence of the clavicles and problems also arise on the number and eruption of teeth. It is a rare disease with autosomal dominant but 40% cases represented spontaneous mutations. This disease has no sex predilection. It is characterized by a generalized skeletal dysplasia.1
In this article we are reporting two cases of cleidocranial dysplasia in son and father with characteristic clinical and radiographic features.
Keywords: Cleidocranial dysplasia, Marie and Saintons disease, Scheuthauer-Marie-Sainton syndrome, Mutational dysostosis, Craniocleidodysostosis.

Cysticercosis Cellulosae in Labial Mucosa: A Rare Case Report
Raghavendra M Shetty, Ramprasad, Anshu Kalra, Shirish Goyal, Sachin BM, Sunaina Shetty, Pravin Lambade, Abhijeet Deoghare
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S48-50]
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Cysticercosis is a condition in which a human acts as the intermediate host of Taenia solium, a pork tapeworm. The larvae infestation sites frequently include cerebral tissue, ocular organs and muscles. The present case report describes a rare incidence of cysticercosis cellulosae in the labial mucosa of upper lip.
Keywords: Taenia solium, Cysticercosis cellulosae, Pork tapeworm, Labial mucosa, Upper lip.

Gene Therapy and its Application in Dentistry
Anshul Khandelwal, Sarbani Deb Sikdar, Raj Kumar Diwan, Savita Ghom, Anil Ghom
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S37-41]
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As evolution is a continous process with the advancement of the technology, the researches are in continuous to understand the cellular and molecular basic of every disease. As in most of the diseases conventional method is not giving satisfactory results, thus focus is on gene therapy located to treat not only inherited disease but also acquired ones. The gene therapy has broad spectrum application in the field of dentistry like in cancerous and precancerous condition, salivary gland disorders, autoimmune diseases, bone repair, DNA vaccination, etc. Thus, aim of this article is to focus in brief of the basic of gene therapy and about its applications in the field of dentistry.
Keywords: Gene, Vector.

A Rare Case of Hemangiopericytoma in the Maxilla of a 4-Year-Old Child
Abhishek Sinha, Kamala Rawson, Govind Singh
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S64-66]
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Hemangiopericytoma is a rare vascular tumor that originates from small pericapillary spindle-shaped cells. Clinical diagnosis of such a lesion is an extremely challenging task because there are very few detailed reports of such a lesion and one would hardly think of a diagnosis such as hemangiopericytoma while examining a lesion. The incidence in head and neck region is less than 20%. Hemangiopericytoma usually occurs in the 4th to 5th decade of life and just 3 to 5% cases affecting the soft tissues around the oral cavity, sinus tract and meninges. The hemangiopericytoma generally presents as a painless mass, but may have symptoms depending upon the size and location of the tumor. Here, we present such a case in a 4-year-old female child involving the anterior maxillary region.
Keywords: Hemangiopericytoma, Vascular neoplasm, Staghorn, Immunohistochemistry.

Variation in SPC/STC Ratio as an Indicator of Age: A Computer-aided Forensic Odontology
Priyanka Debta, Fakir Mohan Debta, Minal Chaudhary, Vijay Wadhwan
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S6-8]
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Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the change in pulp width at the level of cemento-enamel junction and its correlation to different age groups.
Materials and methods: It is a retrospective study in which we are going to see the changes in pulp width as age increases. Ground section of 100 extracted maxillary first premolars were made up to the midpulpal area in labiolingual plane. The correlation of different age group with reduction in ratio of score of pulp width (SPC) and score of tooth width (STC) at cemento-enamel junction was done. All teeth were examined under stereomicroscope then SPC and STC were measured by Leica Qwin software.
Results: Pearson correlation between SPC/STC ratio with different age group was found to be statistically significant. So, measurement of amount of secondary dentin seems to be reliable and rapid method in forensic odontology.
Keywords: SPC, STC, Secondary dentin.

Radiotherapy: An Update
Vikrant Kasat, Sunil Sahuji, Manjiri Joshi
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S26-30]
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Radiotherapy is the art of using ionizing radiation to destroy malignant cells while minimizing damage to normal tissue. Radiotherapy has become a standard treatment option for a wide range of malignancies. Several new imaging techniques, both anatomical and functional are currently being evaluated as well as practiced for treatment planning of cancer. These recent developments have allowed radiation oncologists to escalate the dose of radiation delivered to tumors while minimizing the dose delivered to surrounding normal tissue. In this update, we attempt to pen down important aspects of radiotherapy.
Keywords: Radiotherapy, Megavoltage, Photon, Electron, Radioactive source, Fractionation.

Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma of Maxilla: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature
Thriveni R, Praveen AH
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S62-66]
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Mesenchymal condrosarcomas are rare malignant neoplasms that can arise from both soft and hard tissues. They are distinct tumors arising in unicentric or multicentric locations. They reveal unusual clinical behavior, characteristic histopathological features, and poor prognosis with late recurrences. Here is a case report of a rare case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arising in a 19-year-old female patient’s right maxilla.
Keywords: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, De-differentiated chondrosarcoma, Condrosarcomas of jaw, Hemangiopericytoma, Recurrent lesion, Metastasis.

Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma
Shubhangi Mhaske, Raju Ragavendra T, Sandeep S Gupta, Kavitha P Kamath, Anil Ghom
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S67-68]
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Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a rare, malignant salivary gland tumor commonly affecting the minor salivary glands, histologically showing morphological diversity and a low metastatic potential. Hereby reporting a case of PLGA in a 58-year-old male patient showing involvement of antral floor.
Keywords: Low grade adenocarcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, Polymorphous salivary gland carcinoma.

Intraoral Rhabdomyosarcoma in a Young Boy
Aravinda Konidena, Manasi Kode
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S73-75]
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Rhabdomyosarcoma constitutes about 10 to 15% of the malignant neoplasms affecting children. Common sites of involvement include the head and neck, extremities and retroperitoneum. Intraoral rhabdomyosarcomas are rare and can affect tongue, palate, oral mucosa or gingiva. A case of rhabdomyosarcoma is being reported along with a review of literature.
Keywords: Rhabdomyosarcoma, Children, Head and neck.

Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome
MK Sunil, Raghav Kumar, Guru EN, Vikash Ranjan
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S58-61]
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Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as basal cell nevus syndrome, is an uncommon autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by numerous basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, and musculoskeletal malformation. It is occasionally associated with aggressive basal cell carcinoma and internal malignancies. It is about a multisystemic process characterized by the presence of multiple pigmented basocellular carcinomas, keratocysts in the jaws, palmar and/or plantar pits and calcification of the falxcerebri. Hence, present a case report and a review of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.
Keywords: Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, Basal cell nevus syndrome, OKC, Palmer pit.

Prions: Potential Threat to Mankind and Dental Implications
Ajay R Bhoosreddy, Alok A Lathi, Aniket A Lathi
[Year:2010] [Month:October-December (Supplement)] [Volume:22 ] [Number:4] [Pages:75] [Pages No:S23-25]
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Prion diseases are fatal, infectious, neurodegenerative disorders with special implications for infection control in the health care system. The causative agent is highly resistant to routine disinfection and sterilization processes and has been transmitted during health care interactions. Thus, it is important to use evidence gained through research and case reports to minimize risk of infection. There is no data suggesting that prions are transmitted easily during dental sittings but there remains a rare risk of such transmission if appropriate infection measures are not adhered to.
Keywords: Prions, Fatal disease, Sterilization resistant.


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