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1.  REVIEW ARTICLES
Maxillary Expansion
Anirudh Agarwal, Rinku Mathur
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:139-146]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1069 | FREE

Abstract
Maxillary transverse discrepancy usually requires expansion of the palate by a combination of orthopedic and orthodontic tooth movements.Three expansion treatment modalities are used today: rapid maxillary expansion, slow maxillary expansion and surgically assisted maxillary expansion.This article aims to review the maxillary expansion by all the three modalities and a brief on commonly used appliances.
Keywords: Maxillary expansion, Rapid maxillary expansion, Slow maxillary expansion, Surgically assisted maxillary expansion.

 
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2.  CASE REPORTS
Submerged and Impacted Primary Molars
SK Mishra, MK Jindal, Rajat Pratap Singh, Thomas R Stark, GS Hashmi
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:211-213]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1095 | FREE

Abstract
Submerged tooth is the one that is depressed below the occlusal plane. Dental ankylosis is thought to be a major cause of submergence. Submerged deciduous teeth have the potential to cause malocclusion not only by prevention of their exfoliation and subsequent replacement by permanent teeth but also by causing tilting of proximal teeth and extrusion of opposing tooth. The purpose of this report is to present three different cases of submerged deciduous teeth and their clinical effects.
Keywords: Submerged, Deciduous, Ankylosed.

 
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3.  CASE REPORTS
Occult Caries: The Hidden Truth
V Satish, Prabhadevi CM, Hegde KV
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:225-229]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1098 | FREE

Abstract
The term “occult caries” and “hidden caries” are used to describe such lesions, which are not clinically diagnosed but detected only on radiographs.
A female patient aged 14 years reported for routine dental check-up. On Intraoral examination, sinus was seen in the buccal mucosa of maxillary left second premolar 25. On clinical examination the occlusal surface remained ostensibly intact; tooth was asymptomatic with no past history of pain. On radiographic examination, there was radiolucency in distobuccal aspect of 25 involving enamel, dentin and nearing pulp with presence of open apex and periapical radiolucency irt 25. With clinical and radiographic evaluation, the case was diagnosed as occult caries in relation to 25. Apexification was done with calcium hydroxide. The tooth is under observation; once radiographic barrier is formed conventional root canal treatment will be performed.
Conclusion: Early diagnosis of occult lesions is the best management. As radiographs are probably the most effective method of diagnosing all occult lesions, they should be recommended at appropriate ages to aid early detection of these lesions.
Keywords: Occult caries, Pre-eruptive carious lesions.

 
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4.  CASE REPORTS
Dentigerous Cyst of Inflammatory Origin
Raghavendra M Shetty, Uma Dixit
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:195-198]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1091 | FREE

Abstract
A dentigerous cyst encloses a crown of an unerupted tooth by its follicle and is attached to the neck of the tooth. They may be of developmental or inflammatory origin. Dentigerous cyst of inflammatory origin occurs in immature tooth as a result of inflammation from preceding non-vital deciduous tooth or from other source spreading to involve the tooth follicle. These are diagnosed in the first and early part of second decade either on routine radiographic examination or when patient complains of swelling and pain. They generally involve mandibular premolars.
This article presents a case report of an 11-year-old male patient with a dentigerous cyst of inflammatory origin in the left mandibular premolar region with radiographic feature of a large unilocular radiolucency involving unerupted second premolar. The treatment rendered in this patient comprised of surgical enucleation of cyst under local anesthesia along with extraction of mandibular first and second primary molars.
Keywords: Dentigerous cyst, Enucleation, Inflammatory origin.

 
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5.  ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Staining of a Conventional and a Nanofilled Composite Resin Exposed in vitro to Liquid Ingested by Children
Amit Khatri, B Nandlal
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:183-188]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1089 | FREE

Abstract
Aims and objective: To evaluate and compare the effect of coffee, chocolate drink and food dye on the color stability of conventional composite resin and nanocomposite resin.
Design: The study sample consists of microhybrid composite and other nanocomposite of shade B1. 40 disks of each material with a diameter of 18 mm and thickness of 1 mm were prepared before discoloration procedure specimens were measured for L* a* b* values and then 10 specimens of each subgroup were immersed in each of three staining solution. The 10 remaining specimens of each main group were immersed in control solution.
Discoloration values were analyzed at baseline, 1 week and 4 weeks following immersion in staining solution. The color and color difference of each specimen were measured by spectrophotometer.
L* a * b* values of each specimens were measured 3 times by placing each specimen on the measuring head. Resistance to staining effect is expressed in ΔE unit and was calculated from the mean ΔL* a* and Δb* values for each specimens with the following formula.
Equation: ΔE* = [(ΔL*) 2 + (Δa*) + (Δb*) 2 ] ½.
Result: Result of study showed that nanocomposite is more stain resistant and color change ΔE*. Conventional composite demonstrates unacceptable color change ΔE* more especially in specimens immersed in coffee.
Conclusion: The result of this study indicated tested conventional composite resin was more susceptible to change in color in various media over an extended period of time as compared to nanocomposite.
Keywords: Resin composite, Color, Staining.

 
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6.  ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of Microleakage of RMGIC and Flowable Composite Immersed in Soft Drink and Fresh Fruit Juice: An in vitro Study
Prabha Devi C Maganur, AR Prabhakar, Sugandhan S, Srinivas Namineni
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:153-161]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1071 | FREE

Abstract
Aim: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the effect of a soft drink and a fresh fruit juice on the microleakage of flowable composite and resin modified glass lonomer cement (RMGIC).
Methods and materials: 70 non-carious human premolars were collected and stored in saline until further use. Class-V cavities were prepared and restored with RMGIC on the buccal surface and flowable composite on the lingual surface for evaluating microleakage. The experimental groups (Group I and II ) comprised of 60 teeth, while the remaining 10 formed the control group (Group III—Water). The experimental groups were further divided into 2 groups (Group I—Cola drink and Group II—Fresh orange fruit juice) of 30 teeth each. Each group was then further divided into 3 subgroups (Short, Medium and Long-immersion) containing 10 teeth as shown in flow chart.
Immersion regime was followed according to Maupome G et al and microleakage was evaluated by using Rhodamine B dye and examined under stereomicroscope.
Results: Microleakage data obtained was statistically analyzed by Chi-square test. The teeth showed statistically significant microleakage as the immersion regime increased.
Interpretation and Conclusion: Low pH soft drink caused highly significant microleakage at the tooth and restorative material interface in medium and high immersion regimes signifying that the leakage pattern was directly proportional to the number of immersions. Thus, the study conclusively proves that the 'sipping habit' associated with commonly available low pH beverages is detrimental to the longevity of restorations.
Keywords: Erosion, Non-carious cervical tooth loss, Soft drink, Fresh fruit juice, Microleakage, Flowable composite, RMGIC.

 
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7.  REVIEW ARTICLES
'Use a Thorn to Draw Thorn' Replacement Therapy for Prevention of Dental Caries
Seema Gupta, Nikhil Marwah
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:125-137]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1068 | FREE

Abstract
Despite the use of conventional physical and chemotherapeutic agents for caries management, dental caries still continues to be the most prevalent oral infectious disease. Thus, there is a need of additional caries prevention approaches. Strain replacement therapy is one such novel approach. In this, relatively avirulent strains of Streptococcus mutans produced by recombinant DNA technology are implanted into the oral cavity. These may either interfere with the colonization of, or compete with the indigenous cariogenic mutans streptococci. This technique might provide a cost-effective, long-term means of achieving tailor made protection for the host against dental caries.
Keywords: Replacement therapy, Dental caries prevention, Streptococcus mutans.

 
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8.  CASE REPORTS
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a 12-Year-Old Boy: A Rare Entity in Childhood
Shilpashree HSS
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:199-202]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1092 | FREE

Abstract
Childhood onsets of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are quite rare and comprise less than 20% of all cases of lupus. Prepubertal onset is even rarer, as most children with SLE belong to the adolescent age group. SLE is an immune complex mediated disease with multiple organ system involvement, which may lead to high mortality and morbidity. We report a 12-year-old boy with SLE who presented clinically with malar rashes, joint pain and oral ulcers.
Keywords: SLE, Malar rash, Oral ulcers, Children.

 
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9.  ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cleanliness in the Root Canal System: An Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Manual and Automated Instrumentation using 4% Sodium Hypochlorite and EDTA (Glyde File Prep)—An in vitro Study
Deepak Raisingani, GK Meshram
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:173-182]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1088 | FREE

Abstract
Aim: To assess the cleaning efficacy of manual and automated instrumentation using 4% sodium hypochlorite singly and in combination with Glyde file Prep as root canal irrigant.
Methodology: The study utilized 40 extracted human permanent premolars with single, straight and fully formed root. The teeth were then divided into four groups of ten each, Group I and II were prepared by manual instruments with 4% sodium hypochlorite used as irrigant singly [Group I] or in combination with Glyde file prep. Group III and IV were prepared by automated instruments at 250 rpm with 4% sodium hypochlorite as irrigant singly [Group III] and in combination with glyde file prep [Group IV] automated instrumentation. After completion of the root canal preparation the canal, teeth were prepared for SEM examination. These photomicrographs were qualitatively evaluated using criteria. Overall cleanliness, presence or absence of the smear layer, presence or absence of the debris, patency of the opening of dentinal tubules.
Results: When comparing the cleansing efficacy of manual and automated instrumentation using 4% sodium hypochlorite better cleansing was there with manual instrumentation. When comparing the cleansing efficacy of manual and automated instrumentation using combination regime cleansing is better with automated instrumentation. When comparing the cleansing efficacy of manual instrumentation using 4% sodium hypochlorite singly and in combination with EDTA, the combination regime led to better cleansing. When comparing the cleansing efficacy of automated instrumentation using 4% sodium hypochlorite singly and in combination regime lead to better cleansing.
Conclusion: Neither of instrumentation technique, nor irrigating regimes were capable of providing a completely clean canal. Automated instrumentation with a combination of sodium hypochlorite & EDTA resulted the best cleansing efficacy.
Keywords: SEM, Automated instrumentation, EDDA.

 
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10.  CASE REPORTS
Nonsyndromic Bilateral Maxillary and Unilateral Mandibular Multiple Dentigerous Cysts in a Young Girl: Report of a Rare Case
L Krishna Prasad, P Srinivas Chakravarthi M Sridhar, Y Ramakumar, Vivekanand Kattimani
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:219-223]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1097 | FREE

Abstract
Dentigerous cyst is a benign odontogenic cyst associated with the crowns of permanent teeth. It is usually single in occurrence and located in the mandible of middle-aged persons. The teeth commonly affected are in order of frequency, the mandibular third molars, maxillary canines, maxillary third molars and, rarely central incisors. The present case report describes the surgical enucleation of the huge bilateral maxillary dentigerous cysts involving permanent maxillary canines associated with unilateral mandibular lateral incisor, cuspid and bicuspids in a young girl. To our knowledge, bilateral maxillary and unilateral mandibular multiple dentigerous cysts in a nonsyndromic patient have not been reported previously in the literature.
Keywords: Dentigerous cyst, Bilateral maxilla, Unilateral mandible, Cuspids, Bicuspids, Incisor, Enucleation.

 
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11.  SURVEY
Prevalence of Oral Mucosal and Extraoral Lesions among Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Patients Attending to a Private Hospital, India
Ajithkrishnan CG, Kiran V Hegde, Sudheer Hongal, Gururaj Patil, Shrinivas Basavaraddi, Thanveer K
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:189-194]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1090 | FREE

Abstract
Aim of the Study: To assess the prevalence of oral mucosal and extraoral lesions among the cleft lip and/or palate subjects aged between 3 and 18 years, and to compare with those of noncleft controls.
Methodology: A cross sectional survey was conducted during the period of March 2004 to September 2004. A select sample of 150 cases consisted of cleft lip and/or palate subjects aged between 3 and 18 years reporting to Outpatient Department, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, private Hospital and Medical Research Center, Belgaum. A sample of 450 matched noncleft subjects (Controls) was selected based on convenience from general population. Oral health assessment form as prescribed in Basic Oral Health Surveys, WHO, was used to record the data.
Results: Approximately 43% of cleft subjects had abnormalities of upper lip. 7% of clefts and 5% of noncleft controls presented enlarged lymph nodes on palpation in the head and neck region. Both the cleft subjects and noncleft controls had ulcerations in the buccal mucosa. However, there was no significant difference between them. Among few cleft subjects abscess formation was observed in the sulcus region (1.33%) as well as gingiva (2.66%) adjacent to cleft. Similarly among controls also few abscess in sulcus and gingival region were observed.
Conclusions: On intra-and extraoral examination of cleft and noncleft subjects for any lesions revealed that clefts as well as noncleft subjects exhibited few intraoral lesions, however clinically or statistically significant differences were not observed.
Keywords: Oral mucosal lesions, Extraoral lesions, WHO Proforma 1997, Cleft lip, Cleft palate.

 
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12.  CASE REPORTS
Hyper IgE Disorder Associated with Multiple Fused Primary Teeth: A Rare Clinical Occurrence
AJ Sai Sankar, MG Manoj Kumar, Y Samata, K Srikanth Reddy
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:215-218]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1096 | FREE

Abstract
The hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) is a multisystem disorder that affects the dentition, skeleton, connective tissues and immune system. Little is known about oral manifestations of the syndrome. The purpose of this report was to describe a 6-year-old boy with suspected autosomal recessive HIES syndrome who had multiple fused primary teeth, which is a rare association with JOB syndrome. The patient gave a history of pneumonia and skin infections. Recognition of such case at an early age is necessary to reduce morbidity. As conclusion, treatment for this condition is life long administration of therapeutic doses of penicillinase-resistant penicillin, with the addition of other antibiotics or antifungal agents as required for specific infections.
Keywords: Hyperimmunoglobulin, Pneumonia, Syndrome.

 
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13.  ORIGINAL ARTICLES
To Evaluate Cytotoxicity of Resin-based Restorative Materials on Human Lymphocytes by Trypan Blue Exclusion Test: An in vitro Study
Vinay Kumar Srivastava, Rajat Kumar Singh, SN Malhotra, Aditi Singh
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:147-152]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1070 | FREE

Abstract
The cytotoxicity of a resin-based material can be evaluated on isolated human lymphocyte. Since resin-based dental materials have been used with increasing frequency in anterior and posterior teeth restorations, the uncured resin monomers are leached out from the restorations and diffuses into the dentine and ultimately hampers the odontoblastic layers of pulp as well as gingiva. It is also reaches into the saliva and circulatory blood. The study evaluates and compares the relative cytotoxicity of resin-based dental materials at different time interval, i.e. 24, 48, and 72 hours on human lymphocyte by Trypan blue exclusion method. All resins were found to be cytotoxic to human lymphocyte. Resin samples cytotoxicity was the highest in first 24 hours followed by 48 and 72 hours.
Keywords: Nanocomposite, Cytotoxicity, HISEP LSM, Trypan blue.

 
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14.  CASE REPORTS
Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Marble Bone Disease
Usha Rehani, Vivek K Adlakha, Preetika Chandna, Abhay Agarwal, Vivek Rana, Pooja Malik
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:207-210]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1094 | FREE

Abstract
Osteopetrosis is a rare metabolic disease.1 Dental abnormalities may be attributed to the pathological changes in osteopetrosis. Patients with osteopetrosis are especially susceptible to osteomyelitis of mandible.1 A 13-year-old girl presented with complaint of jaw swelling on left side. The radiograph of left mandible (lateral oblique view) showed small sequestrum with irregularity and erosions of the mandibular cortical margins. This case report aims at diagnosis and treatment of osteopetrosis with superadded mandibular osteomyelitis—a rare entity.
Keywords: Osteopetrosis, Osteomyelitis, Marble bone disease.

 
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15.  CASE REPORTS
Multiple Intranasal Foreign Bodies: An Incidental Diagnosis
Mohammed Ali Habibullah, Sham S Bhat, Sundeep Hegde K
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:203-205]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1093 | FREE

Abstract
Inquisitive children often insert foreign bodies into their nose or other body orifices while they explore their own bodies in early childhood. Intranasal foreign bodies are found in children, most commonly in 2-4 years olds.
Common symptoms in such cases include pain or discomfort, nasal discharge, nasal congestion, nasal odor, including bromhidrosis (foul body odor). Complications, such as facial cellulitis, epiglottitis, and cephalic tetanus have also been reported. Mentally challenged children may be at a higher risk for such foreign body insertion and may need to be examined at regular intervals.
Careful interpretation of dental radiographs can go a long way in diagnosing such cases especially in the absence of a positive history. Radiolucent objects are more difficult to identify especially in the absence of a positive history, and hence their diagnosis and removal is more challenging for the clinician.
Dental practitioners can play a significant role in the diagnosis of intranasal foreign bodies in children through careful clinical examination and interpretation of dental radiographs.
This case report describes a child referred for dental care and a diagnosis of intranasal foreign body was made based on routine dental panoramic radiograph.
Keywords: Intranasal foreign body.

 
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16.  ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of Parental Nasomaxillary Asymmetry as a Risk Factor for Development of Palatal Clefts in their Offsprings
Dinesh Kumar S, K Gopalkrishnan, C Bhasker Rao, Sanjay V Ganeshkar
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:163-171]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1072 | FREE

Abstract
Background and Objectives: It has been suggested previously that increased width of midfacial structure is associated with the development of palatal clefting. One of the most important heritable characteristics predisposing towards the development of orofacial clefting in an embryo is craniofacial morphology. The aim of the study was to compare nasomaxillary width of parents of children with unilateral complete cleft lip alveolus and palate with parents of noncleft children.
Methods: 25 biologic parent sets of children with unilateral complete cleft lip alveolus and palate and 25 biologic parents of noncleft children were included in this study for PA cephalometric analysis.
Results: There was no statistically significant difference between study and control groups. An association was found between the side of the cleft in the affected children and the parents in the same side with narrower nasomaxillary width.
Interpretation and conclusion: The result of this study was in contrast with other previous studies. We observed a narrower nasomaxillary width, which suggested that this feature may be of morphogenetic importance in the etiopathogenesis of orofacial clefting in this geographic and ethnic group.
Keywords: Nasomaxillary asymmetry, Orofacial clefting, PA cephalometric analysis, Craniofacial form.

 
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17.  Guest Editorial
From the Secretariat of National ISPPD Conference, Amritsar,...
Navneet Grewal
[Year:2010] [Month:September-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:104] [Pages No:v]
Full Text PDF | FREE

 
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