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1.  Review Article
Role of Growth Factors in the Development of Mandible
Deepu Leander
[Year:2011] [Month:April-June] [Volume:45 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:51-60]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10021-1010 | FREE

Untitled Document

The exhaustive research over the past four decades has focused on the natural growth of the mandibular condyle and growth changes during the use of different orthopedic appliances on experimental animals. Cartilage growth is partly genetically determined but is strongly influenced by epigenetic factors. The latter includes systemic factors and local factors, such as growth factors and mechanical stimuli.
Growth factors and cytokines are local mediators which are rapidly degraded or inactivated. They can be secreted in response to mechanical and inflammatory stimuli.
Growth factors are a large family of polypeptide molecules that regulate cell division in many tissues by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. Depending on what receptors are activated, growth factors can initiate mitogenic, antiproliferative or trophic effects, that is growth factors act as positive or negative modulators of cell proliferation. The synergistic and orchestrated influences of various growth factors and other regulatory factors that are endogenously expressed in the condyle have been well documented. Growth factors do not only play an important role in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis but also in pathological situations, like infection and wound healing. Consequently, the applications of growth factors have therapeutic applications.
Keywords: Mandible, Growth factors, Growth.
How to cite this article: Leander D. Role of Growth Factors in the Development of Mandible. J Ind Orthod Soc 2011;45(2):51-60.

2.  Case Reports
Management of Congenitally Missing Lateral Incisor
Nidhi Kedia, Ashima Valiathan
[Year:2011] [Month:April-June] [Volume:45 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:93-97]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10021-1016 | FREE

Multiple treatment options are available to patients who have congenitally missing teeth. Management options for the treatment of missing teeth can include the following: (1) Orthodontic space closure and adjacent tooth substitution, (2) autotransplantation, (3) prosthetic replacement with resin-bonded fixed partial dentures, conventional fixed partial dentures and single-tooth implants. In this case report, treatment of a patient with congenitally missing maxillary right lateral incisor will be presented.
Keywords: Congenitally missing tooth, Lateral incisor, Midline shift, Oral rehabilitation, Interdisciplinary treatment.
How to cite this article: Kedia N, Valiathan A. Management of Congenitally Missing Lateral Incisor. J Ind Orthod Soc 2011;45(2):93-97.

3.  Original Articles
Comparative Study of the Plaque Removal Efficacy of Three Types of Toothbrushes in Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances
Tanvir Singh, Bhavana Bhatia, Gunita Singh, P Narayana Prasad
[Year:2011] [Month:April-June] [Volume:45 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:61-67]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10021-1011 | FREE

Introduction: Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances have a challenging oral hygiene situation because brackets tenaciously trap food and other oral debris. Good plaque control is an important factor in the maintenance of dental health during fixed appliance therapy. Many different types of specially designed toothbrushes have been developed in recent years in order to improve the plaque removal. One of these new developments is a manual triple headed brush which is called 'superbrush' which is intended to clean the oral, buccal and occlusal surfaces of the teeth at one time. A clinical study was planned to evaluate the effectiveness of plaque removal by using the new triple headed toothbrush compared to the conventional manual toothbrush and an orthodontic toothbrush.
Methods: A total of 75 patients, aged between 18 and 28 years, were equally divided into three groups: Group I (triple headed toothbrush), group II (orthodontic toothbrush) and group III (conventional toothbrush). The gingival index (Loe and Silness, 1963) and plaque index (Turesky Gilmore and Glickman, 1962) were recorded at baseline, month 1, month 2, month 3 and month 4, and results were subjected to statistical analysis utilizing ANOVA one way and multiple comparison Tukey’s HSD test.
Results: Comparison of the mean gingival and plaque index scores and difference in mean plaque scores between the groups was done and found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The study indicated that the triple headed toothbrush was more efficient in reduction of plaque scores and improvement in gingival index scores overall, and more effective in removal of plaque from tooth surfaces compared to the other two toothbrushes.
Keywords: Triple headed toothbrush, Plaque, Orthodontic toothbrush.
How to cite this article: Singh T, Bhatia B, Singh G, Prasad PN. Comparative Study of the Plaque Removal Efficacy of Three Types of Toothbrushes in Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances. J Ind Orthod Soc 2011;45(2):61-67.

4.  Original Articles
Holy Nexus of Variable Wire Cross-section: New Vistas in Begg’s Technique
Anil Miglani, Ranjit Kumar Reena, Pawanjit Singh Walia, Varun Grover
[Year:2011] [Month:April-June] [Volume:45 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:68-74]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10021-1012 | FREE

Begg appliance is losing its popularity because of limitations encountered in the system. The biomechanics of the conventional Begg technique has an inherent shortcoming in its ability to achieve true intrusion of the maxillary incisors. Additionally, round-tripping of the maxillary incisors during retraction has proven mechanically and biologically disadvantageous with compromised esthetic outcomes.
The clinician is often left wishing for a holy nexus of the wires with variable cross-section which would facilitate biomechanics with enhanced treatment results and negligible side effects.
With the objective of overcoming these shortcomings, customized hybrid wires were designed and used in varied clinical situations to achieve desired results.
Keywords: Controlled tipping, Customized hybrid wires.
How to cite this article: Miglani A, Reena RK, Walia PS, Grover V. Holy Nexus of Variable Wire Cross-section: New Vistas in Begg’s Technique. J Ind Orthod Soc 2011;45(2):68-74.

5.  Original Articles
A Comparative Study of Cephalometric Measurements with Digital versus Manual Methods
Neha Agarwal, Dinesh K Bagga, Payal Sharma
[Year:2011] [Month:April-June] [Volume:45 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:84-90]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10021-1014 | FREE

Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of measurements obtained with a digital cephalometric software program.
Materials and methods: Digital photographs of 32 cephalograms were imported into the Nemotec digital imaging software. Digital measurements of 41 hard and soft tissue variables generated by the software were compared to those obtained by manual tracings. Reproducibility for each method was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient by repeating measurements of all radiographs at an interval of 3 months. A paired t-test was used to detect differences between the manual and digital methods.
Results: Both the methods demonstrated a high correlation (r > 0.7) between the first and second measurements indicating good reproducibility. SN-Occ, anterior cranial base length, posterior cranial base length, nasolabial angle, facial height and lower lip length showed clinically significant differences between the measurements obtained from digital and manual methods.
Conclusion: Digital measurements obtained with the Nemotec digital imaging software using digital photographs of analog cephalograms were found to be reproducible and comparable to the manual method for most of the variables used in clinical practice except a few which could not be measured accurately with the digital method.
Keywords: Cephalometric measurements, Digital imaging, Cephalometric software.
How to cite this article: Agarwal N, Bagga DK, Sharma P. A Comparative Study of Cephalometric Measurements with Digital versus Manual Methods. J Ind Orthod Soc 2011;45(2):84-90.

6.  Clinical Innovation
Template for Soldering Retraction Hooks on Archwires
Rajesh D, Raj Kumar S Alle, Kiran H
[Year:2011] [Month:April-June] [Volume:45 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:98-100]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10021-1017 | FREE

This article describes a template which can be used for stabilizing the archwire during the soldering of the hook on archwires for retraction. This permits hands free operation and decreases the chances of incorrect positioning and annealing of the bare archwire.
Keywords: Soldering, Posted-archwire, Retraction hooks.
How to cite this article: Rajesh D, Alle RKS, Kiran H. Template for Soldering Retraction Hooks on Archwires. J Ind Orthod Soc 2011;45(2):98-100.

7.  Original Articles
Stress Distribution Analysis during an Intermaxillary Disjunction: A Three-dimensional FEM Study of an Adult Human Skull
Baldawa Rahul Shyamsunder, Bhad Ashok Wasundhara
[Year:2011] [Month:April-June] [Volume:45 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:75-81]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10021-1013 | FREE

Objectives: To evaluate the biomechanical effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the craniofacial complex as applied to threedimensional model of an adult human skull using the finite element method.
Materials and methods: A 3-dimensional FEM of the craniofacial complex was developed from sequential computed tomography scan images by using the MIMICS software (version 8.0, Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) and ANSYS software (version 8.0). Known transverse (X) displacement with magnitudes of 1 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm were applied on the maxillary canine and first molar crown. The displacement and von-Mises stresses in different planes were studied on different nodes located at various structures of the craniofacial complex.
Results: Transverse orthopedic forces not only produced an expansive force at the intermaxillary suture but also high forces on various structures of the craniofacial complex, particularly at the base of the sphenoid bone and frontal process of the zygomatic bone. Lateral bending of the free ends of the pterygoid plates were noted with increased resistance demonstrated in superior parts attached to the cranial base.
Conclusion: RME must be used judiciously in adults because of its far-reaching effects involving heavy stresses being noted at the sphenoid bone, zygomatic bone, nasal bone and their adjacent sutures.
Keywords: Adult, Biomechanical effect, Craniofacial complex, Finite element method, Rapid maxillary expansion.
How to cite this article: Shyamsunder BR, Wasundhara BA. Stress Distribution Analysis during an Intermaxillary Disjunction: A Threedimensional FEM Study of an Adult Human Skull. J Ind Orthod Soc 2011;45(2):75-81.

8.  Case Reports
A Customized Approach for Correction of Asymmetric Malalignment
Sunita Rani Godhwani, Sameer Patil
[Year:2011] [Month:April-June] [Volume:45 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:91-92]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10021-1015 | FREE

Successful treatment results depend upon recognizing the forces and moments required to bring the teeth into proper alignment and counter the unwanted effects of these forces. A customized approach is demonstrated which significantly reduces the adverse reactions of conventional mechanics.
Keywords: Customized mechanics, Mid-line correction, Asymmetric malalignment.
How to cite this article: Godhwani SR, Patil S. A Customized Approach for Correction of Asymmetric Malalignment. J Ind Orthod Soc 2011;45(2):91-92.

9.  Clinical Innovation
JIOS Surveys
[Year:2011] [Month:April-June] [Volume:45 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:101]
Full Text PDF | FREE

10.  Editorial
Good is the enemy of GREAT!!!
Gurkeerat Singh
[Year:2011] [Month:April-June] [Volume:45 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:v]
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