Introduction: Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn., known as Arjuna, is an important medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic and traditional systems of medicine. This plant is being used to cure various ailments in India for several years. According to Pushpaayurvedah written by Priya Vrat Sharma, Arjuna flowers are used as one of the chief ingredient in some Ayurvedic formulations, which are used for preventing of baldness and graying of hairs, i.e., Mahanila taila, Nilabindu taila, kasmaryadi taila, Ketakyadi taila. It is also useful in Helminthiasis (Krimiroga), raktapitta (internal hemorrhage), and for some poisons. Though many therapeutics uses have been prescribed in Ayurveda for Arjuna flowers in addition to the other parts, no work has been carried out on flower part. Hence, the present study has been attempted for the first time. Physicochemical analysis, such as loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and different extractive values and preliminary phytochemical screening for various groups of secondary metabolites has been carried out as per standard protocols.

Aim: The present study was carried out to establish pharmacognostical standards and important identification/diagnostic characteristics for identification of Terminalia arjuna flowers.

Materials and methods: Flower material was collected from its natural habitat in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, and authenticated by subject expert, Regional Ayurveda Research Institute for Metabolic Disorders, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India. The flowers were shade dried, powdered, and used for tests. The macro-, microscopical, physicochemical, and preliminary phytochemical studies have been carried out by adopting standard methods.

Results: The microscopic characteristics of the flowers showed the presence of abundant combretaceous-type trichomes, rosette and clustered type of calcium oxalate crystals, reddish orange tannin content, resin ducts, endothecium cells, and abundant rounded pollen grains in three colporate and in monads. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, phenols, proteins, saponins, and tannins.

Conclusion: The macro-, microscopical, powder studies, and preliminary phytochemical investigations of T. arjuna flowers may be used to establish the botanical standards for identification and standardization of T. arjuna flowers.

Keywords: Arjuna, Microscopy, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemicals, Powder study, Terminalia arjuna.

How to cite this article: Reddy MP, Ramaseshan ST, Parvatamma NKS, Rao VR, Shiddamallayya N, Bhat S. Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Arjuna Flowers: Terminalia Arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2017;2(4):289-294.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None