Introduction: Danti, Baliospermum solanifolium (Burm.) Suresh [Syn. Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell. Arg], of family Euphorbiaceae is an important herbal drug in the Ayurveda pharmacopoeia of India. In Ayurveda, Samskara (processing) has been shown to increase the efficacy of various drugs. Shodhana (purificatory measures/processing) is one of the steps involved in Samskara. The Charaka samhita describes the Shodhana (processing) of Danti by applying the fruit powder of Pippali (Piper longum L.) along with honey, wrapping it with Kusha (Desmostachya bippinnata Stapf.), and then fomenting it. The root thus obtained is dried under sunrays and then stored for further use. The exact pharmacognostical changes that transpire through Samskara (classical processing technique) remain to be explored scientifically. Hence, an attempt has been made to evaluate the pharmacognostical changes in Danti root, including its powder microscopy.

Materials and methods: Roots of raw Danti (RD) were collected from its natural habitat (Odisha) after proper botanical authentication. The roots were subjected to Shodhana and four groups of Danti root—RD, classically processed Danti root (CPDR), Kusha-processed Danti root (KPDR), and waterclassically processed Danti root (WPDR)—were obtained. The raw and classically processed Danti roots were evaluated for their macroscopic and microscopic characters while RD, CPDR, KPDR, and WPDR were subjected to powder microscopy. The macroscopic powder images of the respective Danti samples was carried out by L*a*b*color-based image segmentation for identification.

Results: Transverse sections (TS) of CPDR show characteristic features with multilayered, ruptured reddish cork cells and presence of black debris of Pippali adhering to cork cells. Powder microscopy reveals Pippali with stone cells and dark-brownish oleoresin content in the CPDR group. WPDR reveals more swollen sclereids compared with the KPDR group. Macroscopic imaging showed distinct L*a*b* colorbased segmentation.

Conclusion: Pharmacognostical findings of raw and shodhita Danti root will serve as a reference material for future scientific investigation.

Keywords: Baliospermum montanum, Baliospermum solanifolium, Danti, Image processing, Pharmacognosy, Shodhana.

How to cite this article: Rout SP, Harisha CR, Acharya R. Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Raw and Shodhita (Processed) Danti [Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell.-Arg] Root. J Drug Res Ayurvedic Sci 2017;2(3):164-174.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None