The embryo and fetus are generally studied using ultrasound imaging in pregnancy; however, ultrasound wave is absorbed by biological tissues to elevate the temperature. The growing embryonic and fetal tissue tends to be damaged by heating; thus, excess heating that damages young sensitive growing tissue should be prevented in ultrasound diagnosis. Hence, the thermal status of diagnostic ultrasound should be known with thermal index (TI), of which the determination and application are discussed in this chapter. Peculiar problem to transvaginal scan and thermal problem in febrile patient are discussed.
Additionally, the cavitation, which is related with negative pressure, develops high pressure, high temperature, and free radicals that damage embryonic and fetal tissues. Therefore, the mechanical index (MI) has to be determined, measuring negative pressure of ultrasound. The MI is determined for the safety of diagnostic ultrasound.
The ultrasound device output intensity that suppresses fetal amniotic JTC-3 cultured cell growth was determined, where 240 mW/cm2 or less output intensity did not suppress the cell growth, namely, the diagnostic ultrasound has no bioeffect when the output is lower than 240 mW/cm3.
The as low as reasonably achievable principle in the Doppler method of 0.1 TI will be discussed. Three experimental reports of hazardous effects of ultrasound are discussed.
Keywords: Bioeffect, Safety, Mechanical index, Teratogenicity, Thermal index, Transvaginal scan, Ultrasound.
How to cite this article: Maeda K. Safety of Transvaginal Scan Estimated from Ultrasonic Bioeffects. Donald School J Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017;11(1):1-6.
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Conflict of interest: None