Introduction: India is claimed to be the diabetes capital of the world. Many studies had proven that persistent hyperglycemia and associated metabolic syndrome features like hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity contribute to the development of vascular complications. The risk of chronic complications increases as a function of the duration of hyperglycemia; they usually become apparent in the second decade of hyperglycemia. Since type II diabetes mellitus (DM) often has a long asymptomatic period of hyperglycemia, many individuals with type II DM have complications at the time of diagnosis. The vascular complications of DM are subdivided into microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy) and macrovascular (coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, cerebrovascular disease) complications. The present study aims to study the occurrence of microalbuminuria in patients with type II DM and note its association with the duration of diabetes since diagnosis and microvascular complications of DM.
Study design: Prospective observational study.
Materials and methods: The study is a clinical, prospective, and observational study of 100 type II diabetics attending the medicine department outpatient/inpatient of RajaRajeswari Medical College & Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, who form the subjects for the study conducted from August 2015 to July 2016 (12 months) and who matched the inclusion criteria.
Data were collected after obtaining informed/written consent from patient. After detailed history, detailed clinical examination, and general physical and systemic examinations, fundoscopy was carried out and relevant laboratory investigations were done.
Results and conclusion: The overall occurrence of microalbuminuria was 38%. The occurrence of microalbuminuria showed a direct relationship with increasing age (p = 0.053) and increasing duration of diabetes since diagnosis. A hemoglobin (Hb)A1c value above 7% is associated with 50% or higher incidence of microalbuminuria (p = 0.018). Patients with a body mass index of more than 25kg/m2 have increased risk of developing type II DM and significant increase in microalbuminuria. The incidence of microalbuminuria is significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy (p = 0.061), peripheral neuropathy (p = 0.009), and hypertension (p ≤ 0.001). Microalbuminuria is inversely associated with high-density lipoporotein (p = 0.089). During the evaluation of diabetic patients and the occurrence of microalbuminuria, the possibility of microalbuminuria and its correlation with various complications of DM should be kept in mind.
Keywords: Incipient diabetic nephropathy, Microalbuminuria, Type II diabetes mellitus.
How to cite this article: Bhavya N, Kumar VA. A Study of Association between Microalbuminuria and Microvascular Complications in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients in RajaRajeswari Medical College and Hospital, Karnataka. J Med Sci 2017;3(1):6-10.
Source of support: Nil
Conflict of interest: None