Aims: To compare the blood lipid levels of periodontitis group (of different severities) with a nonperiodontitis group and to evaluate any influence of periodontal treatment in altering blood lipid levels.
Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of 83 patients with periodontitis in the “test” group and a matched “control” group of 40, free of periodontitis according to predetermined selection criteria. All subjects underwent periodontal assessments and blood lipid estimation prior to treatment planning, following which they received active periodontal treatment/oral prophylaxis. Twelve weeks after treatment, periodontal reevaluations were carried out and blood lipids were reassessed for pre- and posttreatment comparisons.
Results: Increases in lipid levels were observed in the periodontitis group compared to the nonperiodontitis group at baseline. The test group had 5% higher mean total cholesterol than the control group at pretreatment/preintervention (albeit not significant: Student’s t), while low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch) was 6.6% higher in the test group than the control group (95% confidence interval). Mean triglycerides (Tri-G) were 5.7% higher in the control group than the test group, yet without statistical significance. All types of lipids in both the groups had decreased following periodontal therapy, while Tri-G levels demonstrated an opposite effect.
Conclusion: Patients with generalized severe periodontitis had higher LDL-Ch values than those with generalized mildmoderate periodontitis. Periodontal care was effective in lowering unfavorable serum lipids. Prompt control of periodontal inflammation would minimize development of deep periodontal infection and cardiovascular risk.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Cardiovascular disease risk, Lipid profile, Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Periodontal treatment, Periodontitis.
How to cite this article: Tilakaratne A, Perera WKL, Amaratunga EAAP, Sivakanesan R. Effects of Periodontal Disease and Periodontal Treatment on the Lipid Profile: A Sri Lankan Study. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2016;5(2):127-132.
Source of support: U niversity o f P eradeniya S ri L anka (Research Grant Number RG/2009/40/D).
Conflict of interest: None